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Published by BharaniDeepan

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Categories:Types, Research, Science
Published by: BharaniDeepan on Jun 12, 2010
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Transducer is a device which converts the energy from one form to another form.The energy may be electrical, mechanical, chemical, optical or thermal.ClassificationTransducer may be classified according to their ApplicationMethod of energy conversion Nature of the output signal etc,.Transducer that gives electrical energy as output is known as electrical transducer.The Output electrical signal may be voltage or currentThe production of these signal is based upon resistive and capacitive effects.Transducer that converts the mechanical force into displacement and then into electrical parameter.Transducer may also classified asActive transducer Passive transducer Active transducer also known as self generating type developing their own voltage or current asoutput signal. PV cell, thermo couple, piezo electric transducer, photo electric transducer.Passive transducer also known as externally powered transducer. They derive the power requiredfor energy conversion from an external power source. LVDT, capacitive transducer, RTD.Basic requirements of a transducer.1.
The input-output should be linear.2.
The transducer should withstand overloads, with measures for over load protection.3.
The transducer should produce identical output signal when the same input signal isapplied at different times under the same environmental condition.
4. High stability and reliability
The output from the transducer should not be affected by temperature, vibration and other environmental variation and their should be minimum error in measurements.
5.Good dynamic response
The transducer 
should response to the changes in input as quickly as possible.1
6. Convenient instrumentation
The transducer should produce a sufficiently high analog output signal with high signal tonoise ratio. So that the output can be measured either directly or after suitable amplification.
7. Good mechanical characteristic
working conditions – subject to mechanical strainsexternal forces – deformity /affect performance
Transducers – Principle
Transducers converts energy from one form into another and the out put as electricalsignal by using the principal effects like variation in resistance, capacitance, inductance, piezoelectric and thermal effects.
Classification of transducers
Miller index - three dimensional vector[x y z]
input energy, output energy, modulating energy 
TransducerMillerindex[x y z]Type description
 Transistor [el el el]Modulating shape transducer Thermocouple [th, el, 00] Self-generating input transducerpH meter [ch, el, 00] Self-generating input transducerLED display [el, ra, 00] Self-generating output transducerLCD display [ra, ra, el] Modulating output transducerCoil [ma, el, 00] Self-generating output transducerMagnetoresistor [ma, el, el] Modulating input transducerPhotoconductor [ra, el, el] Modulating input transducer
CAPACITIVE TYPES OF TRANSDUCERCapacitor :It is a most widely used passive elements in circuits. These are deviceswhich can store electric charge. The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by
ε ε 
 The capacitance between two conductive surfaces varies with three majorfactors: the overlapping area(A) of those two surfaces, the distance betweenthem(d), and the dielectric constant(ε
& ε
) of the material in between thesurfaces. If two out of three of these variables can be fixed (stabilized) andthe third allowed to vary, then any measurement of capacitance between thesurfaces will be solely indicative of changes in that third variable. The value of capacitance is determined by:(a)
The area of the plates(b) The
distance between the plates(c)The type of dielectric between the plates
Some transducers work by making one of the capacitor platesmovable, either in such a way as to vary the overlapping area or the distancebetween the plates. Other transducers work by moving a dielectric materialin and out between two fixed plates:Capacitive transducer can be classified as1. Variable capacitive transducer 2.
Differential capacitive transducer 

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