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Preprocessing of video image with unconstrained background for Drowsy Driver Detection

Preprocessing of video image with unconstrained background for Drowsy Driver Detection

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10/26/2010

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Preprocessing of video image with unconstrainedbackground for Drowsy Driver Detection
M.Moorthi
1
, Dr. M.Arthanari
2
, M.Sivakumar
3
 
1
Assistant Professor, Kongu Arts and Science College, Erode – 638 107, Tamil Nadu, India
2
Prof. & Head, Tejaa Sakthi Institute of Technology for Women, Coimbatore – 641 659, Tamil Nadu, India
3
Doctoral Research Scholar, Anna University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, IndiaEmail:moorthi_bm_ka@yahoo.com,arthanarimsvs@gmail.com, , Email:sivala@gmail.com
 
Abstract
The face recognition includes enhancement andsegmentation of face image, detection of face boundary and facialfeatures, matching of extracted features, and finally recognition of theface. Though a number of algorithms are devised for face recognition,the technology is not matured enough to recognize the face of a personsince the algorithm deal with significant amount of illuminationvariation in image. We propose a new image preprocessing algorithmthat compensates for the problem. The proposed algorithm enhancesthe contrast of images by transforming the values in an intensityimage, so that the histogram of the output image is approximatelyuniformly distributed on pixel. Our algorithm does not require anytraining steps or reflective surface models for illuminationcompensation. We apply the algorithm to face images prior torecognition. Simulation is done using seventy five web camera imagesusing Mat lab 7.0.
Keywords:
Facial recognition, Facial features extraction, Eyedetection
 
1. Introduction
The preprocessing of real image is a crucial aspect inmany useful applications like video coding of faces for videophony, animation of synthetic faces, driver behaviors analysis,word visual recognition, expression and emotion analysis,tracing and recognition of faces. The detection of facialfeatures has been approached by many researchers and avariety of methods exist. Nevertheless, due to the complexityof the problem and illumination changes, robustness andpreprocessing steps of these approaches are still a problem.Most commonly, natural face feature templates taken from realperson are used for a template matching algorithm [1],[2].These templates have to satisfy a set of requirements likeorientation, size and illumination. Therefore preprocessing stepis necessary for at least aligning and size changes. A waveletsbased approach is described in [3]. Face images and facefeatures from a database have to be aligned in orientation andsize in preprocessing step. Both previous described methodsare limited by the used template and face database.In this paper we propose a novel low cost methoddesigned for preprocessing. The preprocessing has three steps.In first steps modified histogram equalization is used toenhance the brightness and contrast of the images. In steps two,median filter is used to remove salt and pepper noise. Third,Binary image are obtained through the thresholding.This paper is organized as follows. Literature surveysare given in section 2. In section 3
 
we will devote ourselves todiscussing the preprocessing method in detail. Experimentalresults are reported in section 4. Conclusions will be drawn insection 5.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010145http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
2. Literature Survey
Besides pose variation, illumination is the mostsignificant factor affecting the appearance of faces. Ambientlighting changes greatly within and between days and amongindoor and outdoor environments. Due to the 3D shape of theface, a direct lighting source can cast strong shadows thataccentuate or diminish certain facial features. Evaluations of face recognition algorithms consistently show that state-of-the-art systems can not deal with large differences in illuminationconditions between gallery and probe images [1-3].The face detection algorithms are based on either graylevel template matching or computation of geometricrelationships among facial features. In recent years manyappearance-based algorithms have been proposed to deal withthe problem [4-7]. Belhumeur showed [5] that the set of imagesof an object in fixed pose but under varying illumination formsa convex cone in the space of images. The illumination conesof human faces can be approximated well by low-dimensionallinear subspaces [8]. The linear subspaces are typicallyestimated from training data, requiring multiple images of theobject under different illumination conditions. Alternatively,model-based approaches have been proposed to address theproblem. Blanz et al. [9] fit a previously constructed morphable3D model to single images. The algorithm works well acrosspose and illumination, however, the computational expense isvery high.In general, an image I(x; y) is regarded as product I(x;y) = R(x; y)L(x; y) where R(x; y) is the reflectance and L(x; y)is the illuminance at each point (x; y) [10]. Computing thereflectance and the illuminence fields from real images is, ingeneral, an ill-posed problem. Therefore, various assumptionsand simplifications about L, or R, or both are proposed in orderto attempt to solve the problem. A common assumption is thatL varies slowly while R can change abruptly. For example,Homomorphic filtering [11] uses this assumption to extract Rby high-pass filtering the logarithm of the image. In this paper,enhanced method of histogram equalization is used topreprocess the image.
3. Preprocessing
In order to obtain appropriately-segmented binaryimages, an image preprocessing is applied. To compensate forillumination variations and to obtain more image details,modified histogram equalization is used to enhance thebrightness and the contrast of the images. Then a median filteris used to remove the noise. Binary images are obtainedthrough thresholding. The preprocessing steps are shown in Fig1.Let we see the steps of preprocessing one by one.
3.1. Capturing image
The required images are taken from the video imageusing web camera.
3.2 Enhancing the image
Histogram equalization is a method in imageprocessing of contrast adjustment using the image's histogram.This method usually increases the global contrast of manyimages, especially when the usable data of the image isrepresented by close contrast values. Through this adjustment,the intensities can be better distributed on the histogram. Thisallows for areas of lower local contrast to gain a higher contrastwithout affecting the global contrast. Histogram equalizationaccomplishes this by effectively spreading out the mostfrequent intensity values.The method is useful in images with backgrounds andforegrounds that are both bright or both dark. A key advantageof the method is that it is a fairly straightforward technique andan invertible operator. So in theory, if the histogramequalization function is known, then the original histogram canbe recovered. The calculation is not computationally intensive.Histogram equalization often produces unrealisticeffects in photographs; however it is very useful for scientificimages like thermal, satellite or x-ray images, often the sameclass of images that user would apply false-color to
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010146http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
Fig. 1: Preprocessing steps.. Also histogram equalization can produce undesirableeffects (like visible image gradient) when applied to imageswith low color depth. For example if applied to 8-bit imagedisplayed with 8-bit gray-scale palette it will further reducecolor depth (number of unique shades of gray) of the image.Histogram equalization will work the best when applied toimages with much higher color depth than palette size, likecontinuous data or 16-bit gray-scale images.There are two ways to think about and implementhistogram equalization, either as image change or as palettechange. The operation can be expressed as
P(M(I))
where
 I 
isthe original image,
 M 
is histogram equalization mappingoperation and
P
is a palette. If we define new palette as
P'=P(M)
and leave image I unchanged then histogramequalization is implemented as palette change. On the otherhand if palette P remains unchanged and image is modified to
 I'=M(I)
then the implementation is by image change. In mostcases palette change is better as it preserves the original data.Generalizations of this method use multiplehistograms to emphasize local contrast, rather than overallcontrast. Examples of such methods include adaptive histogramequalization and contrast limiting adaptive histogramequalization.Histogram equalization also seems to be used inbiological neural networks so as to maximize the output firingrate of the neuron as a function of the input statistics. This hasbeen proved in particular in the fly retina. Histogramequalization is a specific case of the more general class of histogram remapping methods. These methods seek to adjustthe image to make it easier to analyze or improve visual quality
3.3. Proposed Modification
While the results of a standard histogram equalizationfiltering over the whole image just described give promisingresults, we wanted to see if the results could be furtherimproved. Many well-known enhancement algorithms such ashistogram equalization and homomorphic filtering are global innature and are intended to enhance an image and deal with it asa whole. We tried to split the original image in sub-images andfilter each sub-image individually. First we decided to try andsplit the image into two halves vertically (thus obtaining twosub-images
 
of the original image) and then apply the filter toeach half individually. Second idea was to split the imagehorizontally and again apply the filter to each half individually.Encouraged by the good results obtained with both thesemethods (see Section 4 for details) we further tried to combinethe filtering results into a joint representation. Let
 I 
 HEV 
(
 x
,
 y
) bethe image split vertically and each half filtered with histogramequalization filter individually, let I
 HEH 
(
 x
,
 y
) be the same forhorizontally split images and let
 I 
 HEMOD
(
 x
,
 y
) be our proposedmodification:
 I 
 HEMOD
(
 x
,
 y
) = 0.5[
 I 
 HEV 
(
 x
,
 y
) + .70 I
 HEH 
(
 x
,
 y
)]Since
 IHEV 
scored higher results than
 IHEH 
in ourtests we decided to keep the whole
 IHEV 
and multiply
 IHEH 
with a constant of 0.70 (chosen based on experimental results),InputVideoEnhancingvideoMedianfilteringThresholdingBinaryimage
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010147http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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