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Ultra Fast Computing Using Photonic Crystal Based Logic Gates

Ultra Fast Computing Using Photonic Crystal Based Logic Gates

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
2
 , 2010
Ultra Fast Computing Using Photonic Crystal BasedLogic Gates
X.Susan ChristinaDept. of ECEMookambigai College of Engg.Trichy-622 502, India.fab_jesu@yahoo.co.inA.P.KapilanDept. of ECE
ChettinadCollege of Engg &Tech
Karur,. 639114. India.apkabilan@yahoo.co.inP. Elizabeth CarolineDept. of ECEJJ College of Engg &Tech,Trichy –620 009,India. becaroline05@yahoo.com
 Abstract 
 — 
A Noveldesign of all-optical fundamentalNANDand XNOR logic gates based on two dimensional photoniccrystals hasbeen presentedin this paper. In a photoniccrystal self collimated beams are partially transmitted and
partially reflected with a phase lag at line defect in Γ
-Xdirection. By employing a appropriate phase shifter, thereflected and transmitted inputbeams areinterferedconstructivelyor destructively to obtain therequired logicoutputs
.
The operation of the logic gates is simulated usingtwo dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD)method
.
 Keywords-optical computing; logic gated; photonic crystal; self collimated beam; FDTD
I.I
 NTRODUCTION
The demand for bandwidth in worldwide networkscontinues to increase due to growing internet usage and high bandwidth applications. Optical computingis one of promisingtechnique to meet all the necessary requirements such as highspeed, high speed, supporting highdata rateand ultra fast performance [1,2]. All optical logic gates are the key elementin next generation optical computing and in networkingto perform optical signal processing such as binary addition,header reorganization, parity checking, optical bit patternrecognition addressing, demultiplexing, regenerating andswitching.In order to realize the gates, various configurationshave been reported that utilize the nonlinear properties of theoptics. All-optical gates reported in the literature [3-8] could be achieved with a semiconductor laser amplifier loop mirror (SLALOM), a semiconductor optical amplifier-(SOA-) basedMach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI), a SOA based ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI), cross-polarizationmodulation, and four-wave mixing (FWM) in SOAs, SOA withOptical filter, Periodically Poled Lithium Noibate(PPLN)waveguide . These schemes suffered from certain fundamentallimitations such as spontaneous emission noise, power consumption and size.In recent years, optical waveguide element employing photonic crystals have been received lotofattention becauseof their dimension,low loss structureof less than 2 dB/cm [9]and high speed with data rate of 120 GB/s [10]. NormallyPhotonic Crystals (PC) are produced by artificially imparting periodic change ofthe refractive index of a structure whichhas a band gap thatprevents propagation of certain frequencyrangeof light. But the propagation of light inside the PC can be controlled by different propagation mechanisms such asnegative refraction, super prism and self collimated beam propagation. When non linear effect is applied to thephotoniccrystal it requires high intensity incidentlight for its propagation and the balance between diffraction and focusingeasily collapses due to the absorption. In self-collimatingeffect, the collimated light beam insensitive to the divergenceof the incident beam without applying a nonlinear effect [11].In this paper we propose NAND and XNOR gatesrealization.The paper is organized as follows, In Section II, photoniccrystal theory is described. In Section III, structural andnumericalanalysis isexplained.Section IVpresents the proposed scheme of logic gates.Resultsand relateddiscussions are presented in section V. Finally, conclusions aresummarized in section VI.II.P
HOTONIC
C
RYSTAL
T
HEORY
Photonic crystals(PC)are composed of periodic dielectricmaterials.In PC,for some frequency ranges the light waves arenot propagating through the structure such frequency range iscalled forbidden gap photons. The doping of impurity or creating defects will allow a perfect control of light propagation and radiation. Introducing line defects in PCresults in a photonic crystal waveguide. Line defects can beformed in photonic crystaleither by reducing the radii of PCrods or by eliminating them partially. When the self-collimated beam is incident atthe line defect the beam is splitted[12, 13].It is evident that there is a phase difference between thetransmitted and the reflected beams. If the rod radii of the linedefect are smaller than that of the host rod radii, the reflected
wave lag the transmitting wave by π/2
else the phase differenceis-
π/2 [1
4].If another self-collimated beam with appropriate phase is launched, the reflected and transmitted beams mayinterfere constructively or destructively. This phenomenon isused to realize logic gates functions.
152http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
2
 , 2010
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of photoniccrystal.Figure 2. Banddiagram of photonic crystal.Figure 3. Schematic of XNOR gate.Figure 4. Schematic of NANDgate.
III.S
TRUCTURAL AND
 N
UMERICAL
A
 NALYSIS
To realize the operation of the all optical logic gates, a 2Dsquare lattice PC composed of silicon dielectric rods in air isconsidered. The size of the PC is 6.4 x 6.4
μm.
The refractiveindex of the silicon rod is 3.5. The radius and the dielectricconstant of rods are ‘r’=0.35a and ‘
ε
= 12.0 respectively [12],where ‘a’is the lattice constant and its value is0.365µm. Theline defect is formed byreducing the silicon rod radii = 0.274aof 1
5 rods aligned in the Γ
-X direction.Self collimation phenomena occurs when lights of frequencies around f= 0.194c/a[12] where ‘c’is the speed of light in free space propagate
along the direction of Γ
-M. Fig 1 shows the schematic diagramof the Photonic crystal. In this structure there are four faces,two of them are consider as input and remaining two are asoutput.To analysis photonic crystal, FDTDwith perfectlymatched layer boundary condition methodis used in this paper.It solves Maxwell's equations by first discretizing theequations via central differences in time and space and thennumerically solving these equations.Since the wholecalculation region is divided into very small uniform cells, theaccuracy of this technique can be improved. Photonic waveguides are very small due to the frequency of light. It is bothexpensive and complicated to construct these. ThereforeFDTD simulation isa great interest to analysis.Fig.2 depictsthe band diagram of the PC using FDTD simulation.IV.P
ROPOSED
S
CHEME OF
L
OGIC
G
ATES
 A.Schematic of XNOR Gate
Logic gates function can be realized by introducing acertain phase difference between the input beams. To realizeXNOR gate along with two input beams, the thirdreferenceinput beam is alsoincident on the PC. The inputs I
1
and I
2
arelaunched at the inputface 1 and the third referencebeam isapplied tothe input face 2. The optical phase shifter isconnected at the reference input to obtain appropriatephaseshift. The phase difference between the inputs I
1
and I
2
arezero i.e.
φ
1
-
φ
2
= 0 and the phase difference between inputsand the reference
input φ
1
-
φ
3
is s
et as π/2. The XNOR output
is taken from the output face 2.
 B.Schematic of NAND Gate
The gate NAND can be realized by applying the input beams I
1
and I
2
on input face 1and the reference beam islaunched atinput face 2. The inputspowersconsider in thiscase arehalf of the reference input power.The phasedifference between the inputs I
1
and I
2
is zero i.e. φ
1
-
φ
2
= 0and the phase difference between inputs and the reference
input φ
1
-
φ
3
set as π/2. The NAND output is taken from the
output face2.V.
ESULTS AND
D
ISCUSSIONS
In the XNOR gate when two input beams and the reference
input with the phase difference π/2
areintroduced, the outputlightwill be at the face O
2
. If only one input with referenceinput isapplied, there is no output atthe face O
2
. Table 1 gives
153http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
8
 , No.
2
 , 2010
the functions of the XNOR gate and Fig. 5 shows the fielddistributions of TE mode for various input combinations.
TABLE I. F
UNCTIONS OF
XNORG
ATE
SignalDescriptions
XNOR for φ
1
-
φ
2
= 0 & φ
1
-
φ
3
= π/2
and the input powers I
1
=I
2
= I
3
Input signal (I
1
)0011Input signal (I
2
)0101Control signal (I
3
)1111Output O
2
1001
In the NAND gate when two input beams whose powersarehalf of the reference inputpower isintroduced, no outputsignal is fromthe faceO
2
. If only one input with referenceinput or only reference input is applied, there is an outputsignal in the face O
2
. The TE mode field distributions for various input combinations are shown in Fig.6and Table 2gives the functions of the NAND gate.
TABLE II. F
UNCTIONS OF
 NANDG
ATE
SignalDescriptionsNAND
gate for φ
1
-
φ
2
=0 & φ
1
-
φ
3
=π/2
and the input powers I
1
/2=I
2
/2= I
3
Input signal (I
1
)0011Input signal (I
2
)0101Control signal (I
3
)1111Output O
2
1110
VI.C
ONCLUSION
The design of novel all-optical logic gates consisting of  phase shifter and photonic
crystal with a line defect in the Γ
-Xdirectionis proposed. The self-collimated optical beams areapplied at a line defect of thephotonic crystal thatare partiallytransmitted and reflected with a phase lag. If the intensities of the input beams are chosen in appropriate proportions andopposite phase difference between the input signals, theoverlapping of transmitted and reflected beams interfere either constructively or destructively giving a logic output. Based onthese phenomena the XNOR and NAND gates functions arerealized. The steady state field distributions at different inputstates are obtained by FDTD simulation. The results indicatethat photonic crystals are potential candidature for opticaldigital integrated circuitswhich are used for opticalcomputing.
Figure 5a) Simulated field distribution when both inputs arehigh.Figure 5b) Simulated field distribution whenone of theinput ishigh.Figure 5c) Simulatedfield distribution whenboth inputsarelow.Figure 6a) Simulated field distribution when both inputs are high.Figure 6b) Simulated field distribution whenone of theinput ishigh.
154http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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