(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol.
Ultra Fast Computing Using Photonic Crystal BasedLogic Gates
X.Susan ChristinaDept. of ECEMookambigai College of Engg.Trichy-622 502, India.email@example.comA.P.KapilanDept. of ECE
ChettinadCollege of Engg &Tech
Karur,. 639114. India.firstname.lastname@example.orgP. Elizabeth CarolineDept. of ECEJJ College of Engg &Tech,Trichy –620 009,India. email@example.com
A Noveldesign of all-optical fundamentalNANDand XNOR logic gates based on two dimensional photoniccrystals hasbeen presentedin this paper. In a photoniccrystal self collimated beams are partially transmitted and
partially reflected with a phase lag at line defect in Γ
-Xdirection. By employing a appropriate phase shifter, thereflected and transmitted inputbeams areinterferedconstructivelyor destructively to obtain therequired logicoutputs
The operation of the logic gates is simulated usingtwo dimensional Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD)method
Keywords-optical computing; logic gated; photonic crystal; self collimated beam; FDTD
The demand for bandwidth in worldwide networkscontinues to increase due to growing internet usage and high bandwidth applications. Optical computingis one of promisingtechnique to meet all the necessary requirements such as highspeed, high speed, supporting highdata rateand ultra fast performance [1,2]. All optical logic gates are the key elementin next generation optical computing and in networkingto perform optical signal processing such as binary addition,header reorganization, parity checking, optical bit patternrecognition addressing, demultiplexing, regenerating andswitching.In order to realize the gates, various configurationshave been reported that utilize the nonlinear properties of theoptics. All-optical gates reported in the literature [3-8] could be achieved with a semiconductor laser amplifier loop mirror (SLALOM), a semiconductor optical amplifier-(SOA-) basedMach-Zehnder interferometer (SOA-MZI), a SOA based ultrafast nonlinear interferometer (UNI), cross-polarizationmodulation, and four-wave mixing (FWM) in SOAs, SOA withOptical filter, Periodically Poled Lithium Noibate(PPLN)waveguide . These schemes suffered from certain fundamentallimitations such as spontaneous emission noise, power consumption and size.In recent years, optical waveguide element employing photonic crystals have been received lotofattention becauseof their dimension,low loss structureof less than 2 dB/cm and high speed with data rate of 120 GB/s . NormallyPhotonic Crystals (PC) are produced by artificially imparting periodic change ofthe refractive index of a structure whichhas a band gap thatprevents propagation of certain frequencyrangeof light. But the propagation of light inside the PC can be controlled by different propagation mechanisms such asnegative refraction, super prism and self collimated beam propagation. When non linear effect is applied to thephotoniccrystal it requires high intensity incidentlight for its propagation and the balance between diffraction and focusingeasily collapses due to the absorption. In self-collimatingeffect, the collimated light beam insensitive to the divergenceof the incident beam without applying a nonlinear effect .In this paper we propose NAND and XNOR gatesrealization.The paper is organized as follows, In Section II, photoniccrystal theory is described. In Section III, structural andnumericalanalysis isexplained.Section IVpresents the proposed scheme of logic gates.Resultsand relateddiscussions are presented in section V. Finally, conclusions aresummarized in section VI.II.P
Photonic crystals(PC)are composed of periodic dielectricmaterials.In PC,for some frequency ranges the light waves arenot propagating through the structure such frequency range iscalled forbidden gap photons. The doping of impurity or creating defects will allow a perfect control of light propagation and radiation. Introducing line defects in PCresults in a photonic crystal waveguide. Line defects can beformed in photonic crystaleither by reducing the radii of PCrods or by eliminating them partially. When the self-collimated beam is incident atthe line defect the beam is splitted[12, 13].It is evident that there is a phase difference between thetransmitted and the reflected beams. If the rod radii of the linedefect are smaller than that of the host rod radii, the reflected
wave lag the transmitting wave by π/2
else the phase differenceis-
4].If another self-collimated beam with appropriate phase is launched, the reflected and transmitted beams mayinterfere constructively or destructively. This phenomenon isused to realize logic gates functions.