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Controlling Wheelchair Using Electroencephalogram

Controlling Wheelchair Using Electroencephalogram

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Published by: ijcsis on Jun 12, 2010
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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.2, 2010
Controlling Wheelchair Using Electroencephalogram
Vijay Khare
1
Jayashree Santhosh
2
 
Dept. of Electronics and Communication, Engineering Computer ServicesCentre
Jaypee Institute of Information Technology Indian Institute of Technology,Nioda, India Delhi, IndiaEmail : vijay.khare@jiit.ac.in Email : jayashree@cc.iitd.ac.in
Sneh Anand
3
 
Manvir Bhatia
4
 Centre for Biomedical Engineering Centre Department of Sleep Medicine,Indian Institute of Technology, Sir Ganga Ram Hospital,Delhi, India New Delhi, IndiaEmail : sneh@iitd.ernet.in Email : manvirbhatia1@yahoo.com
 Abstract—
This paper present the development of a powerwheelchair controller based on Electroencephalogram (EEG).Toachieve this goal wavelet packet transform (WPT) was used forfeature extraction of the relevant frequency bands fromelectroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Radial Basis Functionnetwork was used to classify the pre defined movements such asrest, forward, backward, left and right of the wheelchair.Classification and evaluation results showed the feasibility of EEG as an input interface to control a mechanical device likepowered wheelchair.
Keywords— Electroencephalogram (EEG), Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT), Radial Basis Function neural network (RBFNN), Brain computer interface (BCI), Rehabilitation, Wheelchair Controller.
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 There are numerous interfaces and communicationmethods between human and machines. A typical humaninterface utilizes input devices such as keyboard, mouse, joystick, chin control, ultrasonic non contact head controllerand voice controller. Such interfaces were developed toimprove manipulability, safety and comfortness. Literaturesurvey shows existing systems such as Chin controller isinconvenient to use, ultrasonic non-contact head controller hasrelatively low accuracy and voice controller gives delayedresponse to voice command hence not useful in noisyenvironment[1-2]. Recently, a number of biological signalssuch as electromyogram (EMG), Electroencephalogram (EEG)and Electrocculogram (E.O.G) have been employed as hands-free interface to machines [3-7]. Brain Computer Interface(BCI) system has been shown to have the potential to offerhumans a new nonmuscular communication channel, whichenables the user to communicate with their externalsurroundings using the brain’s electrical activity measured aselectroencephalogram (EEG) [8-12].This paper introduces the working prototype of a BrainControlled Wheelchair (BCW) that can navigate inside atypical office and hospital environment with minimumstructural modification. It is safe and relatively low cost andprovides optimal interaction between the user and wheelchairwithin the constraints of brain computer interface.In this study, Wavelet Packet Transform (WPT) methodwas used for feature extraction of mental tasks from eightchannel EEG signals. WPT coefficients give the bestdiscrimination between the directions of wheelchair in therelevant frequency band. The WPT coefficients were used asthe best fitting input vector for classifier. Radial BasisFunction network was used to classify the signals.II.
 
METHODOLOGY
 A.
 
Subjects
Nine right-handed healthy male subjects of age(mean: 23yr) having no sign of any motor- neuron diseaseswere selected for the study. A pro-forma was filled in withdetail of their age & education level as shown in Table I. Theparticipants were student volunteers for their availability andinterest in the study. EEG data was collected after takingwritten consent for participation. Full explanation of theexperiment was provided to each of the participants.
TABLE I. C
LINICAL
C
HARACTERISTICS OF
S
UBJECTS
 
S.No. Subject Age Educationalstatus
1 Subject 1 22 BE2 Subject 2 21 BE
181http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.2, 2010
3 Subject 3 23 BE4 Subject 4 27 M.TECH5 Subject 5 23 BE6 Subject 6 22 BE7 Subject 7 27 M.TECH8 Subject 8 22 BE9 Subject 9 22 BE
 B.
 
 EEG Data Acquisition
EEG Data used in this study was recorded on aGrass Telefactor EEG Twin3 Machine available at Deptt. of Neurology , Sir Ganga Ram Hospital, New Delhi. EEGrecording for nine selected subjects were done for five mentaltasks for five days. Data was recorded for 10 sec during eachtask and each task was repeated five times per session per day.Bipolar and Referential EEG was recorded using eightstandard positions C3, C4, P3, P4, O1 O2, and F3, F4 byplacing gold electrodes on scalp, as per the internationalstandard 10-20 system of electrode placement as shown in Fig1. The reference electrodes were placed on ear lobes andground electrode on forehead. EOG (Electooculargram) beinga noise artifact, was derived from two electrodes placed onouter canthus of left and right eye in order to detect andeliminate eye movement artifact. The settings used for datacollection were: low pass filter 1Hz, high pass filter 35 Hz,sensitivity 150 micro volts/mm and sampling frequency fixedat 400 Hz.
Figure1:- Montage for present study
C.
 
 Experiment Paradigm
An experiment paradigm was designed for the studyand the protocol was explained to each participant beforeconducting the experiment. In this, the subject was asked tocomfortably lie down in a relaxed position with eyes closed.After assuring the normal relaxed state by checking the statusof alpha waves, the EEG was recorded for 50 sec, collectingfive session of 10sec epoch each for the relaxed state. Thiswas used as the baseline reference for further analysis of mental task. The subject was asked to perform a mental taskon presentation of an audio cue. Five session of 10sec epochfor each mental task were recorded, each with a time gap of 5minute (as shown in Fig 2). The whole experiment lasted forabout one hour including electrode placement.
Figure 2: Timing of the Protocol
 Data collected from nine subjects performing
ve mentaltasks were analyzed. The following mental tasks were used torecord the appropriate EEG data.
 
Movement Imagination:-The subject was asked toplan movement of the right hand.
 
Geometric Figure Rotation:-The subject was given 30seconds to see a complex three dimensional object,after which the object was removed. The subject wasinstructed to visualize the object being rotated aboutan axis.
 
Arithmetic Task:-The subject was asked to performtrivial and nontrivial multiplication. An example of atrivial calculation is to multiply 2 by 3 and nontrivialtask is to multiply 49 by 78. The subject wasinstructed not to vocalize or make movements whilesolving the problem.
 
Relaxed: - The subject was asked to relax with eyesclosed. No mental or physical task to be performed atthis stage.
 D.
 
Feature Extraction
The frequency spectrum of the signal was firstanalyzed through Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method [13-14]. The FFT plots of signals from all the electrode pairs wereobserved and maximum average change in EEG amplitudewas noted as shown in Fig3. For relaxed state, the peak of power spectrum almost coincides at for central and occipitalarea in the alpha frequency range (8-13Hz) [15]. EEGrecorded with relaxed state is considered to be the base line forthe subsequent analysis. Mu rhythms are generated oversensorimotor cortex during planning a movement. Formovement imagery of right hand, maximum upto 50% bandpower attenuation was observed in contralateral (C3 w.r.t C4)hemisphere in the alpha frequency range (8-13Hz) [16]. Forgeometrical figure rotation, the peak of the power spectrumwas increased in right hemisphere rather than left in theoccipital area for the alpha frequency range (8-13Hz)[17]. Fortrivial multiplication, the peak of the power spectrum wasincreased in left hemisphere rather than right hemisphere inthe frontal area for the alpha frequency range (8-13Hz)[18].For non trivial multiplication, the peak of the powerspectrum was increased in left hemisphere rather than right
10ms 10msRelaxMentalTask
Sec……..
02010
 
A1A2C3 C4P4P3O1 O2
F3
 
F4
 
182http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No.2, 2010
hemisphere in the parietal area for the alpha frequency range(8-13Hz).
Figure 3: Maximum Average change in Amplitude of PSD
 The data was preprocessed using Wavelet packet transformto extract the most relevant information from the EEG signal.[19-20]. By applying Wavelet packet transform on the originalsignal wavelet coefficients in the (8-13Hz) frequency band atthe 5
th
level node (5, 3) were obtained. Twenty onecoefficients have been obtained from one second of EEG data.These coefficients are scaled and used as the best fitting inputvector for classifiers. Subsequently the signal wasreconstructed at node (5, 3).
 E.
 
Classifier 
For classification, Radial Basis Function NeuralNetwork (RBFNN) classifier was employed. A two layernetwork was implemented with 21 input vectors, a hidden layerwith Gaussian activation function consisting as many as hiddenneurons as input vectors and five neuron in the output layer[21-23]. RBFNN produces a network with zero error ontraining vectors. Using RBFNN the five mental tasks wereclassified, as shown in Tables II
TABLE II. CLASSIFICATION
 
OF
 
FOUR
 
MENTAL
 
TASKS
Tasks Accuracy%classifications
Movement Imagery 100 00100Trivial Multiplication 100 01000Geometric FigureRotation100 00010Nontrivial Multiplication 100 10000Relax 100 00001
After the classification of five mental tasks namelymovement imagery, trivial multiplication, geometrical figurerotation, nontrivial multiplication and relax, the output of theclassifier was interfaced with the motor using parallel port. Themotor driver required 3 bit of data. The output of classifier wasmapped into 3 bit as shown in table3 to provide parallel portinput bit, which was used to drive the motor
 
F.
 
 Hardware implementation
Figure 4: Conceptual block diagram of the wheelchair controlled by EEGsignals (courtesy http//www. getch.at/g.bcisys/bci.html)
Conceptual block diagram of EEG based power wheelchairsystem is shown in Fig 4. Using parallel port, Motor driver IC(IC L293) was interfaced with computer as shown in Fig 5 forthe wheelchair controller. In the circuit, P1 acts to enable thechip and combination of P2 and P3 were used to controldirection of wheelchair. The truth table for the above logic isshown in Table III with polarities of motor of M1and M2. Allfive direction of wheelchair movement were properlycontrolled by this designed circuit.
Figure 5: Circuit Diagram for wheelchair controllerTABLE III. T
RUTH
T
ABLE OF
H
ARDWARE
D
ESIGN
 P1P2 P3
 M1 M2
TASKS1 0 0 0 1 1 0 LEFT (L)1 1 0 1 0 1 0 FORWARD(F)1 0 1 0 1 0 1 BACKWARD(B)1 1 1 1 0 0 1 RIGHT (R)0 X X --- --- --- --- STOP(S)
0
 
10
 
20
 
30
 
40
 
50
 
60
 
Movement
 
Trivial
 
Rotation
 
Nontrivial
 
Relax
Mental Tasks
 
C3-C4
 
F3-F4
 
O1-O2
 
F3-F4
 
C3-C4
 
Am pl  i   t   u t   e  (   d  b  )  
++
-
 
-
183http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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