The proposed region-based group key management protocoldivides a group into region-based subgroups based ondecentralized key management principles using WeightedClustering Algorithm (WCA). This partitioning of region intosubgroups improves scalability and efficiency of the keymanagement scheme in providing a secure groupcommunication. Figure 1 shows the partitioning of region intosubgroups on the basis of decentralized key management principles [16, 18]. It is assumed that each member of thegroup is equipped with Global Positioning System (GPS) andtherefore each one knows its location as it moves across theregions. For secure group communications, all members of agroup share a secret group key, K
. In addition to ensuresecurity in communication between the members of eachsubgroup all the members of the subgroups in the region ‘i’hold a secret key K
. This shared secret key is generated andmanaged by a distributed group key management protocol thatenhances robustness. This region-based group keymanagement protocol will function at the optimal regional sizerecognized to reduce the cost of key management in terms of network traffic.
Figure 1 Region-based Group Key ManagementThe average number of nodes in the system is N=
denotes the node density of the randomly distributednodes and A indicates the operational area with radius ‘r’. Therandom distribution of nodes is according to a homogeneousspatial Poisson process. The nodes can join or leave a group atany point of time. A node may leave a group at any time withrate
and may rejoin any group with rate
. Therefore, the probability that a node is in any group is
) and the probability that it is not in any group is
). Let A
be the aggregate join and leave rates of all nodes,respectively. Then, A
, can be calculated as follows,)(
μ λ μ λ
μ λ λ μ
Nodes in a group must satisfy the forward/backwardsecrecy, confidentiality, integrity and authenticationrequirements for secure group communications in the presenceof malicious outside attackers. The important requirement for secure group communication is reliable transmission. This can be achieved by using acknowledgement (ACK) packets and packet retransmission upon timeout. Hexagon is used to modela region . Let R(n) denote the number of regions (i.e. 3n
+ 3n + 1) in the operational area. For n=3, the number of regions in the operational area is 37, for n=2 and n=1, thenumber of regions in the operational area are 19 and 7respectively. Figure 2 shows the representation of the regionsin the operational area for n=1, 2, and 3.
n=1, Number of Regions=7
n=2, Number of Regions=19
n=3, Number of Regions=37
Figure 2. Representation of Regions in operational area
This describes the working of our proposed region-basedgroup key management for MANETs.
In this initial bootstrapping process, a node within a regioncan take the responsibility of a regional “leader” to carry outGroup Diffie Hellman (GDH). If there are multiple initiators,then the node with the smallest id will prevail as the leader and will implement GDH to completion to generate a regionalkey. Once a leader is generated in each region, all leaders inthe group will execute GDH to agree on a secret leader key,
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010196http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500