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Introduction to Lipids

Introduction to Lipids

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Published by: BharaniDeepan on Jun 12, 2010
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09/02/2014

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UNIT II - LIPIDSLecture 6: Introduction, importance and classificationIntroduction:
Lipids are chemically heterogenous group of compounds that are
insolublein water but soluble in non-polar solvents
such as
chloroform.
The word lipid isderived from the Greek word
'lipos'
meaning fat.Fats supply over 
twice as much energy per unit weight
as proteins or carbohydrates. Lipids are anhydrous due to non-polar nature and represent moreenergy than carbohydrates which are heavily hydrated due to polar nature.Lipids occur in plants and animals as
storage
and
structural components.
Structural lipids present in animals and plants are in the form of meat and vegetablesrespectively. Storage fats occur in milk and adipose tissue of farm animals and inseed oils.Lipids also supply the
essential fatty acids
which are not synthesised inhuman beings but are essential for growth. Lipids are essential for the
effectiveabsorption of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E and K
from intestine.
 
Many
enzymes
require
lipid molecules for maximal activity
. Examples aremicrosomal enzyme, glucose 6-phosphatase and mitochondrial enzyme, -
hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase.
Adrenal corticosteroids, sex hormones and vitamin D3(Cholecalciferol)
are synthesized from lipid derivative - cholesterol.Much of the lipid of mammals is located subcutaneously and acts as
insulation
against excessive heat loss to the environment. The subcutaneous lipiddeposits also insulate the important organs against mechanical trauma.The presence of lipids in diet contributes to palatability. Lipids contributepalatability in two ways. They induce olfactory responses, namely, taste in the mouthand aroma through nose. Secondly, they contribute to the texture of food and areresponsible for the mouth-feel.
Classification
Lipids are broadly classified into
simple, compound
and
derived lipids
 
Simple lipids
Lipids containing
only fatty acids
and
glycerol or long chain alcohols
(monohydric) are called as
simple lipids
which include
fats, oils and waxes
1
 
Compound lipids
Compound lipids contain certain chemical groups in addition to alcohol and fattyacids. These groups of lipids include
glycerophospholipids, sphingo phospholipids,glycolipids, sulpholipids
and
lipoproteins.Derived lipids
Substances that are derived from simple and compound lipids on hydrolysisIt includes
alcohol, fatty acids, sterols
2
 
Lecture 7 Structure of Fatty acids and Triacyl Glycerol, Essential Fatty acidsPlant fatty acids
Fatty acids are
carboxylic acids
with hydrocarbon chains of 
2 to 36
carbons
.More than 200 fatty acids have been isolated from higher and lower plants. Of these,only a few are present in
large quantities
in most plant lipids. These are referred as
major fatty acids
. Fatty acids present in
smaller proportions
are called as
minor fatty acids.
Major and minor fatty acids are usually biosynthesised by analogouspathways. Fatty acids that occur 
only in a few 
plant species
are called as
unusualfatty acids.Major fatty acids
The major fatty acids are
saturated
or 
unsaturated
with an unbranched carbonchain. The
saturated fatty acids
are
lauric (dodecanoic), myristic (tetradecanoic),palmitic (hexadecanoic) and stearic (octadecanoic) acid.
 
The
unsaturated fattyacids
 
are oleic (9-octadecenoic), linoleic (9,12-octadecadienoic)
and
α-linolenic(9,12,15- octadecatrienoic) acid.
 
They are usually found in the lipids from all parts of plants. The structure of fattyacids is written as
a
symbol of two numbers
 
separated by a colon: the
first number 
denotes the
carbon atoms
in the chain and the
second number 
denotes the number of 
unsaturation centres
.
The
 positions of double bonds
are specified
by superscript numbers
following (delta). Thus, 18:2 (
9, 12
) indicates an eighteen carbon fatty acidwith two double bonds between C-9 and C-10, and between C-12 and C-13. The doublebonds of all naturally occurring unsaturated fatty acids are in
the
 
cis configuration
. The
non-polar hydrocarbon chain
accounts for the
 poor solubility of fatty acids
in water.
Minor fatty acids
3

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