attempts to add continuous attributes using a standardPSO algorithm.
III. PROPOSED FRAMEWORK FORTHE HYBRID ACO2/PSO/BBOTECHNIQUE FOR LAND COVERFEATURE EXTRACTIONA. Dataset used
Our objective is to use the proposed hybrid algorithmas an efficient Land cover classifier for satellite image.We have taken a multi-spectral, multi resolution andmulti-sensor image of size 472 X 576 of Alwar area inRajasthan. The satellite image for 7different bands istaken. These bands are Red, Green, Near Infra Red(NIR), Middle Infra Red (MIR), Radarsat-1 (RS1),Radarsat-2 (RS2), and Digital Elevation Model (DEM).The ground resolution of these images is 23.5m and istaken from LISS (Linear Imaging Self ScanningSensor)-III, sensor. The 7-Band Satellite Image of Alwar area in Rajasthan is given in figure 1.
Fig 1. 7-Band Satellite Image of Alwar Area in Rajasthan
B. Defining Parameters for theBiogeography Based Land Cover FeatureExtraction Algorithm
The BBO parameters of the Biogeography Based LandCover Feature Extraction algorithm are defined asfollows :
: Each of the multi-spectral bands of imagerepresents one Suitability Index Variable (SIV) of thehabitat. Thus,
SIVЄ C is an integer and C
: A habitat H Є SIV
: Initially there exists a universal habitatthat contains all the species to be migrated. Also thereare as many other habitats as the number of classes tobe found from the image. So the ecosystem H
is agroup of 6 habitats (one universal habitat and fivefeature habitats) since 5 features i.e. rocky , barren,water, urban and vegetation are to be extracted fromthe Alwar Image.
: Rough set theory was used to obtain therandom clusters of pixels (by using discretization andpartitioning concept of rough set theory) and each of the resulting cluster will be considered as mixedspecies that migrate from one habitat to another. Thesespecies can also be termed as ‘elementary classes’ of ahabitat.
: Standard deviation of pixels is used asHabitat Suitability Index to help in imageclassification.
: The original BBO algorithm proposed themigration of SIV values from a high HSI habitat to alow HSI habitat. In the above algorithm, rather thanmoving SIV, the species are moved altogether from auniversal habitat to feature habitat. The species do notremain shared: it is removed from the universal habitatand migrated to the feature habitat.
: Maximum Immigration rate andMaximum Emigration Rate are same and equal tonumber of species in the habitat.  Maximum speciescount (Smax) and the maximum migration rates arerelative quantities.
Since mutation is not an essential featureof BBO, it is not required in the proposed algorithm.Elitism, too, is an optional parameter; it has not been inthe modified BBO Algorithm.
C. Proposed Architecture
The process of Biogeography Based Land CoverFeature Extraction is divided into three steps:
The first step considers a class and concatenates itwith various training sets (i.e. water, vegetation,rocky, barren and urban). These classes andtraining sets are saved as excel sheets containing xcoordinate, y-coordinate, DN values of all thebands. After concatenation each result is stored ina different sheet.
The next step is to use a Heuristic procedure todecide which land cover property each classbelongs to. This is done (in Matlab  ) bycomparing the mean of the Standard Deviation foreach of these classes ( defined as the FitnessFunction) with the Standard Deviation of theFeature Habitat class, using a specific thresholdvalue .
Therefore, Fitness function = difference of themean of the Standard Deviation for each of theseclasses. Feature Habitat class = class whichcontains the standard training set pixels of the 7-Band Image of the Alwar region for comparison.
In the final step, this function decides which valueof mean of standard deviation has minimumdifference from the original class.i.e.HSI = Standard Deviation for each of the classes
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 8, No. 2, May 2010246http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500