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P. 1
1 Pn Junction

1 Pn Junction

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Published by ramesh

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Published by: ramesh on Jun 13, 2010
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A p-n junction is formed by combiningP-typeandN- type semiconductorstogether in very close contact. Normally they are manufactured from a singlecrystal with different dopant concentrations diffusedacross it. Creating a semiconductor from twoseparate pieces of material introduces agrainboundarybetween them which would severely inhibitits utility by scattering the electrons and holes. Theterm
refers to the region where the tworegions of the semiconductor meet. It can bethought of as the border region between the p-typeand n-type blocks as shown in the followingdiagram:Asiliconp-n junction with no applied voltage .The p-n junction possesses some interestingproperties which have useful applications in modernelectronics. A p-doped semiconductor is relativelyconductive. The same is true of an n-doped
semiconductor, but the junction between them is anonconductor. This no conducting layer, called thedepletion zone, occurs because the electricalchargecarriersindopedn-type and p-type silicon (electrons  andholes, respectively) attract and eliminate eachother in a process calledrecombination. Bymanipulating this nonconductive layer, p-n junctionsare commonly used asdiodes: electrical switchesthat allow a flow of electricityin one direction butnot in the other (opposite) direction. This property isexplained in terms of the
effects, where the term
refers to anapplication of electricvoltageto the p-n junction.In a p-n junction, without an external appliedvoltage, an equilibrium condition is reached in whicha potential difference is formed across the junction.This potential difference is called built-in potential
.In an equilibrium PN junction, electrons near the PNinterface tend to diffuse into the p region. Aselectrons diffuse, they leave positively charged ions(donors) on the n region. Similarly holes near the PNinterface begin to diffuse in the n-type region leavingfixed ions (acceptors) with negative charge. Theregions nearby the PN interfaces lose their neutralityand become charged, forming thespace chargeregionordepletion layer
A p-n junction in thermal equilibrium with zero biasvoltage applied. Electrons and holesconcentration are reported respectively with blueand red lines. Gray regions are charge neutral.Light red zone is positively charged. Light bluezone is negatively charged. The electric field isshown on the bottom, the electrostatic force onelectrons and holes and the direction in which thediffusion tends to move electrons and holes.The
created by the space chargeregion opposes the diffusion process for bothelectrons and holes. There are two concurrentphenomena: the diffusion process that tends togenerate more space charge and the electric fieldgenerated by the space charge that tends to

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