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Public Planning and Political Strategy

Public Planning and Political Strategy

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Published by Aamir Shehzad
Public Planning and Political Strategy
Public Planning and Political Strategy

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Published by: Aamir Shehzad on Jun 13, 2010
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06/23/2013

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\xkfic \fjmmime jmo\gfiticjf St{jthey
Ohmmis J- [gmoimhffi„_hcamgfgey jmo Ohrhfg|nhmt Imstitxth& _ah Hjst.Uhst Chmth{
\fjmmime tahg{y jmo |{jctich oh{irho b{gncg{|g{jth hq|h{ihmch& njmjehnhmt scihmchjmo {jtigmjf ohcisigm tahg{y ajrh ajo fittfhimbfxhmch gm ohcisigm.njdime im tah |xkficshctg{- _ah |gfiticjf hmri{gmnhmt jmo g{ejm.ipjtigmjf cgn|fhqity gb |xkfic ohcisigmnjdime {hmoh{ cgmrhmtigmjf j||{gjcahs tggk`hctirh& {jtigmjf& cgn|{hahmsirh |fjmmimegb finitho rjfxh im egrh{mnhmt jehmcihsjmo im |{irjth cg{|g{jtigms imrgfrho im|xkfic |gficy njdime- J ng{h hbbhctirhj||{gjca tg st{jtheic |fjmmime jmo njmjeh.nhmt nxst kh kjsho gm jm xmoh{stjmoimegb tah |gfiticjf oymjnics ta{gxea uaica|gficihs j{h njoh- It nxst jog|t j rj{ihtygb styfhs oi{hctfy {hfjtho tg nj`g{ bxmctigmsim tah |gficy njdime |{gchss jmo xsh jrj{ihty gb |gfiticjf imth{rhmtigm jmo im.bfxhmch thcamizxhs tajt bjcifitjth tah in.|fhnhmtjtigm gb |fjms jmo |gficihs-
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JMMIME AJS J FGME _[JOI_IGM IM EGRH[M.
nhmt jmo |fjys j siemibicjmt {gfh im mjtigmjfjmo fgcjf kxoehtime& |{ge{jnnime jmo njmjeh.nhmt- _ahg{ihs jmo |{jctichs gb |xkfic |fjmmimeuh{h oh{irho |{inj{ify b{gn |{imci|fhs gb njmjeh.nhmt scihmch jmo b{gn tah st{jtheic |fjmmimehq|h{ihmch gb fj{eh cg{|g{jtigms-’ \fjmmime& im itsk{gjohst shmsh& kg{{guho its |{hsc{i|tigms b{gn{jtigmjf ohcisigm tahg{y& jmo cgmsists gb j sht gb|{gchox{hs uah{hky ohcisigm njdh{s jtthn|t tg
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iohmtiby jmo ohbimh nj`g{ |{gkfhns jmo egjfs&jmjfyph {hfhrjmt hmri{gmnhmtjf jmo st{jtheiccgmoitigms&|{g`hct t{hmos& mhhos& g||g{txmitihs jmocgmst{jimts&t{jmsbg{n egjfs imtg g|h{jtigmjf tj{ehts&iohmtiby jfth{mjtirh cgx{shs gb jctigm bg{jcaihrime egjfs jmo tj{ehts&
*Ohmmis J- [gmoimhffi is Shmig{ Bhffgu jt tah _ah Hjst.Uhst Chmth{& Agmgfxfx& Ajujii-J\[IF& :952
cjfcxfjth cgsts jmo khmhbits gb hjca jfth{mjtirh&hstinjth tah |{gkjkifitihs gb bxtx{h hrhmts jmo|{g`hctho t{hmos gccx{{ime&ohth{nimh tah |gthmtijf mgm.hcgmgnic ejims&fgsshs jmo cgmshzxhmchs gb hjca jfth{mjtirh&caggsh tah g|tinjf jfth{mjtirh g{ sht gbjctigms&imthe{jth cagshm cgx{shs gb jctigm imtg jcgn|{hahmsirh fgme.{jmeh |fjm-\fjms j{h tahm t{jmsbg{nho imtg g|h{jtigmjf|{ge{jns& kxoehts jmo scahoxfhs bg{ in|fhnhmtj.tigm-_ais iohjf ngohf gb fgme {jmeh |fjmmime ajsehmh{jffy bjifho& aguhrh{& tg |{goxch ohsi{ho{hsxfts im tah |xkfic shctg{- Imohho tah iohjf ngohfajs {j{hfy khhm g|h{jtigmjfipho im |xkfic |gficy.njdime- Imthmsirh hrjfxjtigms gb |xkfic ohcisigm.njdime.jt mjtigmjf js uhff js fgcjf fhrhfs& im kgtajorjmcho jmo ohrhfg|ime mjtigms.ogcxnhmt tahoibbicxftihs gb ogime cgn|{hahmsirh |fjmmime-[hrihuime tah |{gchss im j mxnkh{ gb cgxmt{ihs&Uifojrsdy bgxmo bhu t{xfy sxcchssbxf hbbg{ts- _ah|jxcity gb hbbhctirh |fjmmime systhns& ah cgmcfxoho&‑sxeehsts tajt tah {hcg{o gb |fjmmime ajs aj{ofy khhmk{iffijmt- Bg{ jff uh dmgu& tah bhu j||j{hmt sxc.chsshs !ib tah{h j{h jmy) cgmstitxth mg ng{h tajm{jmogn gccx{{hmchs-„ Hqjnimime tah Jnh{icjmhq|h{ihmch uita njsth{ |fjmmime im fgcjf egrhn.nhmt fho gmh hq|h{t tg cgmcfxoh tajt ‑uah{h it ujst{iho jmo `xoeho ky its gum cfjins& cgn|{hahmsirh|fjmmime tx{mho gxt tg kh j cgfgssjf bjifx{h-‑3Jmjfysts mgth tajt imoirioxjfs jmo g{ejmipjtigmsog mgt& jmo imohho cjmmgt& njdh ohcisigms im tahaieafy {jtigmjf jmo cgn|{hahmsirh njmmh{ |{h.sc{ikho ky cgmrhmtigmjf |fjmmime tahg{y- _ahy cith‑cgemitirh finits gm {jtigmjfity’& imjkifity gb imoi.rioxjfs tg tjdh imtg jccgxmt cgn|fhq shts gbrjfxhs& egjfs jmo cgmshzxhmchs& jmo tah aiea cgstsgb shj{caime uiohfy bg{ g|tinjf sgfxtigms js|j{jnhth{s tajt dhh| ohcisigm.njdime imhritjkfyj ‑sjtisbicime’& jmo imc{hnhmtjf |{gchss-?\{gkfhns gb g|h{jtigmjfipime cgn|{hahmsirh|fjmmime im egrh{mnhmt j{h jtt{ikxtjkfh& tg j fj{eh
58
 
hqthmt& tg tah bjct tajt |xkfic |gficy.njdime issxkstjmtijffy oibbh{hmt b{gn jmo ng{h cgn|fhq tajmohcisigm.njdime im j simefh cg{|g{jtigm- Njmjeh.nhmt scihmch rh{sigms gb |fjmmime tahg{y ehmh{jffyjssxnh j aiea fhrhf gb chmt{jf cgmt{gf grh{ g{ejm.ipjtigmjf jctiritihs ta{gxea j aih{j{caicjf st{xctx{htajt rhsts jxtag{ity jmo {hs|gmsikifity bg{ ohcisigm.njdime im j simefh caihb hqhcxtirh g{ j sht gbtg| njmjehnhmt gbbicijfs- Jonimist{jtirh xmits j{hoh|j{tnhmtjfipho ky nj`g{ |x{|gsh& |{gchss&|{goxct g{ cfihmthfh& uita jxtag{ity ohfhejtho tgrj{igxs fhrhfs& hjca sx|h{risho ky jmo {hs|gmsikfh tgtah mhqt aieah{ fhrhf- S|jm gb cgmt{gf is finitho jmoxmity gb cgnnjmo is |{hsh{rho tg |{hrhmt grh{fj|&ox|ficjtigm jmo ujsth jmo tg |{gngth hbbicihmcy-Im |xkfic |gficy.njdime& aguhrh{& tahsh cgm.oitigms {j{hfy |{hrjif- Imohho& nj`g{ ohcisigms j{h{j{hfy uitaim tah |x{rihu g{ jxtag{ity gb j simefhjehmcy- \fjmmime is xsxjffy ogmh ky j mxnkh{ gbohcisigm.njdh{s im jm g{ejmipjtigmjffy cgn|fhqhmri{gmnhmt xmoh{ |gfiticjffy oymjnic cgmoitigms-_ah caj{jcth{istics gb tais cgn|fhq ohcisigmhmri{gmnhmt.hnh{eime ng{h b{hzxhmtfy mgt gmfyim tah |xkfic shctg{ kxt im fj{eh |{irjth g{ejmipj.tigms js uhff.shrh{hfy cgn|ficjth cgmrhmtigmjf|{gchsshs gb cgn|{hahmsirh& fgme {jmeh |fjmmime-Aj{fjm Cfhrhfjmo ngst cgmcishfy sxnnj{iphs tahsitxjtigm uahm ah gksh{rhs tajt0
‖_ah g{ejmipjtigms tajt eht taimes ogmh uiff mg fgmeh{ khaih{j{caicjf |y{jnios uita ngst gb tah {hjf cgmt{gf jt tahtg|- _ahy uiff kh systhns.imth{fjcho uhks gb thmsigm imuaica cgmt{gf is fggsh& |guh{ oibbxsho& jmo chmth{s gbohcisigm |fx{jf- ‑Ohcisigm.njdime’ uiff khcgnh jm im.c{hjsimefy imt{icjth |{gchss gb nxftifjth{jf k{gdh{jeh kgtaimsioh jmo gxtsioh tah g{ejmipjtigm tajt taimds it ajs tah{hs|gmsikifity bg{ njdime& g{ jt fhjst jmmgxmcime& tahohcisigm- Khcjxsh g{ejmipjtigms uiff kh ng{h ag{ipgmtjf&tah ujy tahy j{h egrh{mho is fidhfy tg kh ng{h cgffheijf&cgmshmsxjf jmo cgmsxftjtirh- _ah kieeh{ tah |{gkfhns tgkh tjcdfho& tah ng{h {hjf |guh{ is oibbxsho jmo tah fj{eh{tah mxnkh{ gb |h{sgms uag cjm hqh{cish it.ib tahy ug{djt it- _ah t{hmo is risikfh im tgtjfitj{ijm js uhff js ohng.c{jtic sgcihtihs-‖s
Im sxca jm hmri{gmnhmt |fjmmime jmo ohcisigm.njdime imhritjkfy khcgnh |gfiticjf jctiritihs-\fjmmime cjmmgt jssxnh jm gk`hctirh& {jtigmjf&thcamicjf& rjfxh.b{hh {gfh jmo kh hbbhctirh- \fjmmimekhcgnhs j |{gchss mgt gmfy gb jmjfypime |{gkfhns&egjfs jmo jfth{mjtirh cgx{shs gb jctigm& kxt jfsg gbjorgcjtime |gsitigms& imbfxhmcime khajrig{ jmoimth{rhmime im tah |gficy.njdime |{gchss tg jbbhcttah gxtcgnh gb ohcisigms- It khcgnhs j nhtago mgtgmfy bg{ caggsime jfth{mjtirh cgx{shs gb jctigm kxtbg{ ohsiemime st{jtheihs bg{ hqhcxtime tahn- _ahcaj{jcth{istics gb |gfiticjf ohcisigm.njdime ajrh|{gbgxmo in|ficjtigms bg{ tah mjtx{h& |{gchss&thcamizxhs jmo nhtagos gb |fjmmime- Ib st{jtheic|fjmmime jmo njmjehnhmt j{h tg khcgnh ng{hhbbhctirh im tah |xkfic shctg{& tahg{y jmo |{jctichnxst
0
!:) kh kjsho gm j tag{gxea xmoh{stjmoime gbtah |gfiticjf hmri{gmnhmt im uaica |gficihs j{hnjoh4 !;) jog|t j rj{ihty gb bg{ns jmo styfhs tajtj{h oi{hctfy {hfjtho tg nj`g{ bxmctigms im tah|gficy.njdime |{gchss4 jmo& !3) bjsaigm j rj{ihtygb imth{rhmtigm jmo imth{jctigm thcamizxhs imtgst{jtheihs bg{ imbfxhmcime mgt gmfy tah cagich gbjfth{mjtirhs kxt jfsg tah in|fhnhmtjtigm gb shfhctho|gficihs-
CAJ[JC_H[IS_ICS GB \XKFIC\GFICY.NJDIME
\xkfic |gficy.njdime is jm imth{.g{ejmipjtigmjf&{jtah{ tajm jm imt{j.g{ejmipjtigmjf& |{gchss- \xkficohcisigms hrgfrh b{gn tah imth{jctigm gb imoirioxjfsjmo e{gx|s hjca shhdime j fheitinjth jffgcjtigm gb{hsgx{chs g{ jxtag{ity b{gn tah egrh{mnhmtjfsysthn- \gficy.njdime& js |gfiticjf scihmtists |gimtgxt& imrgfrhs j rj{ihty gb bxmctigms0 |h{ch|tigm jmoohbimitigm gb mhhos& |{gkfhns jmo egjfs& bg{nxfj.tigm gb |{g|gsjfs jmo |fjms4 ngkifipjtigm gbsx||g{t4 sgcijf jmjfysis jmo |gfiticjf ‑ohfikh{jtigm’4|gficy hmjctnhmt jmo fheitinipjtigm- Gmch |gficihsj{h hmjctho& |fjms j{h in|fhnhmtho ta{gxea g{ejm.ipjtigm jmo jonimist{jtigm gb |{ge{jns jmo|{g`hcts4 |{ge{jn {hsxfts j{h hrjfxjtho jmo|gficihs {hbg{nxfjtho-2Im {hjfity& |gficynjdime is itimithfy ng{h cgn.|ficjtho tajm in|fiho ky tais sin|fh ohsc{i|tirhngohf- Yht |gficihs og hrgfrh ta{gxea j cycfh gbiohmtibijkfh stjehs- _ah |{gchss ohsc{ikho hj{fih{ ismgt mhchssj{ify shzxhmtijf4 mg{ j{h tah stjehsjfujys cfhj{fy oistimexisajkfh im |{jctich g{nxtxjffy hqcfxsirh& simch sgnh jctiritihs njy gccx{sinxftjmhgxsfy jmo gtah{ bxmctigms j{h imhqt{icjkfyfimdho- \fjms njy kh stjffho g{ oih khbg{h cgn|fht.ime tah |{gchss& g{ j{h {hsx{{hctho fjth{ im oibbh{hmtbg{n- Khcjxsh gb tah |{gchox{jf jmo g{ejmipjtigmjfcgn|fhqity& hbbhctirh |fjmmime im tah |xkfic shctg{nxst kh kjsho gm j tag{gxea xmoh{stjmoime gb tahcaj{jcth{istics gb tah |gficy.njdime |{gchss 05
!:) \gficynjdime is Hsshmtijffy j \gfiticjfJctirity
\xkfic ohcisigm.njdime is j |gfiticjf |{gchss{jtah{ tajm jm imthffhctxjf g{ ohfikh{jtirh gmh-\gficihs hrgfrh ta{gxea sgcijf imth{jctigm& cgmbfict{hsgfxtigm jmo nxtxjf jo`xstnhmt jngme e{gx|suita oirh{sh egjfs- \{ig{itihs j{h ohth{nimho jmobimjf cagichs njoh ta{gxea cgn|{gnishs jngmee{gx|s uita j oirh{sity gb rjfxhs& ohcisigm c{ith{ij&imth{hsts& jmo |h{ch|tigms gb khmhbits jmo cgsts-
!;) \gficy Egjfs j{h Jo`xstho tg tahJrjifjkifity gb Nhjms tg Jcaihrh _ahn
[j{hfy j{h |xkfic |gficihs tah {hsxft gb g|tinjfohcisigms- Egjf bg{nxfjtigm is sitxjtigmjf- Hjcag{ejmipjtigm |j{tici|jtime im |xkfic ohcisigm.njdime |x{sxhs its gum imth{hsts4 egjfs njy khth{nimjf g{ imst{xnhmtjf& cajmeime grh{ tinh im{hfjtigm tg cajmehs im sgcijf& hcgmgnic jmo|gfiticjf cgmoitigms- _ah fhrhf gb hq|hctjtigms gbohcisigm.njdh{s j{h jo`xstho tg tah |{gkjkifity&sxk`hctirhfy ohth{nimho& gb jcaihrime tahi{ gk`hc.tirhs& tg hstinjths gb xmch{tjimtihs jmo {isds gb
52
FGME [JMEH \FJMMIME
 
|x{sxime j |j{ticxfj{ cgx{sh gb jctigm& tg |h{ch|.tigms gb |jst sxcchss im imbfxhmcime tah gxtcgnhgb |gfiticjf cgmbfict& jmo tg tahi{ jcchss tg {hsgx{chsbg{ imbfxhmcime tah khajrig{ gb gtah{ ohcisigm.njdh{s-!3)
\gficy \fjmmime [hzxi{hs _{joime.GbbCgn|fhq Rj{ijkfhs tg [hjca j \gfiticjffyBhjsikfh Jfth{mjtirh
\gficy.njdime imrgfrhs t{johgbbs jngme hcgm.gnic& |gfiticjf& sgcijf jmo gtah{ c{ith{ij& uhieaimetjmeikfh bjcts& imbg{njtigm& jmo ojtj jejimstimtjmeikfh jmo imcjfcxfjkfh |gthmtijf g||g{txmitihsjmo cgmst{jimts- Zxjmtitjtirh rj{ijkfhs nxst khkjfjmcho uita zxjfitjtirh bjctg{s- Ohcisigms jbbhct.ime innhoijth |{gkfhns jmo issxhs nxst khkjfjmcho jejimst fgme {jmeh in|jcts jmo cgmsh.zxhmchs- J uioh rj{ihty gb egjfs& c{ith{ij jmoimth{hsts cgmsioh{ho in|g{tjmt ky oibbh{hmt e{gx|sjmo imoirioxjfs nxst kh {hcgmcifho im j |fjmcj|jkfh gb jtt{jctime sxbbicihmt sx||g{t tg khhmjctho jmo in|fhnhmtho-
!?) \gficy is Bg{nxfjtho jmo In|fhnhmtho_a{gxea j ‑Ag{ipgmtjf’ Ohcisigm St{xctx{h
\gficy is imitijtho& hmjctho& hqhcxtho jmo hrjf.xjtho ta{gxea j cgn|ficjtho sht gb ‑ag{ipgmtjf’imth{jctigms uitaim jm g{ejmipjtigmjffy cgn|fhqohcisigm hmri{gmnhmt- Egrh{mnhmt st{xctx{h isb{jenhmtho jmo g|hm tg tah imbfxhmch gb j uiohrj{ihty gb |xkfic jehmcihs& |{irjth g{ejmipjtigmsjmo s|hcijfipho imth{hst e{gx|s- \guh{s jmo{hs|gmsikifitihs j{h ois|h{sho jmo xmhrhmfy oist{i.kxtho jngme s|hcijfipho g{ejmipjtigms uitaim jmogxtsioh gb tah egrh{mnhmt st{xctx{h- \gficy isin|fhnhmtho ta{gxea j cgn|fhq systhn gb bg{njfjmo imbg{njf ohfhejtigm gb {hs|gmsikifity jmocgmt{gf- _ah |gficy.njdime st{xctx{h ajs j nxfti.txoh gb fhrh{jeh |gimts jt uaica imoirioxjfs jmoe{gx|s jtthn|t tg hqh{cish imbfxhmch- \j{tici|jmts|gsshss j oirh{sity gb |gthmtijf {hsgx{chs bg{ im.bfxhmcime tah gxtcgnh gb |gfiticjf cgmtficts.ngmhy& c{hoit& cgmt{gf grh{ `gks& rgths& imbg{njtigm&hq|h{tish& |g|xfj{ity jmo gtah{s.jmo rj{yimesdiffs jt xtifipime tahn-
!8) \j{tici|jmts im \gficy.Njdime JctUitaim Mj{{gufy Ohbimho Cgmch|tigms gbtah ‑\xkfic Imth{hst
Xmfidh |{irjth cg{|g{jtigms& |xkfic jehmcihs{j{hfy ajrh hjsify ohbimho c{ith{ij ky uaica tg `xoehtah ‑cg{{hctmhss’ gb jfth{mjtirh cgx{shs gb jctigm-\fjms im tah |{irjth shctg{ njy kh jinho jt imc{hjs.ime |{gbits& hq|jmoime nj{dht saj{h& g{ oirh{sibyime|{goxct fimhs- Im |xkfic |gficy.njdime tah{h isgbthm mg grh{.{ioime& cfhj{fy ohbimho sht gb egjfs kyuaica tg caggsh gmh jfth{mjtirh grh{ jmgtah{-\gficy is imitijtho& bg{nxfjtho& hmjctho jmo in.|fhnhmtho ky e{gx|s |x{sxime tahi{ gum imth{hstsjmo tahi{ gum cgmch|tigms gb ‑tah |xkfic imth{hst’-\gficy.njdime is jm jng{jf |{gchss& egrh{mho ky jmhtaics gb {hs|gmsikifity4 hjca |j{tici|jmt ohth{nimhstah cg{{hctmhss gb j cgx{sh gb jctigm im th{ns gb aisjkifity tg sjtisby j cgmstitxhmcy g{ tg {h|{hshmt j|gsitigm cgmsioh{ho ky ain tg kh ng{jffy cg{{hct-\gficy.njdime is egrh{mho ky sitxjtigmjf htaics{jtah{ tajm ky jksgfxth |{imci|fhs gb {ieat jmou{gme- Cgmbfict gbthm h{x|ts grh{ oisje{hhnhmtscgmch{mime ohcisigm c{ith{ij js uhff js grh{ oisje{hh.nhmts gm sxkstjmtirh cgmthmt gb |gficy |{g|gsjfs-
!2) \xkfic Ohcisigms Hrgfrh _a{gxeaCgmbfict [hsgfxtigm
\gficihs hnh{eh ngst gbthm ta{gxea j |{gchss gbcgmbfict {hsgfxtigm im uaica imoirioxjfs jmo e{gx|sjtthn|t tg imbfxhmch hjca gtah{s’ khajrig{ ta{gxea|sycagfgeicjf bihfo njmi|xfjtigm& joj|tirh jo`xst.nhmts& kj{ejimime& mhegtijtigm& cgjfitigm.kxifoime&cgmbfict ois|fjchnhmt& imoxchnhmts& ta{hjts& jxtag{i.tjtirh cgmt{gf jmo bg{ch-
!5) \gficihs j{h Mgt Cagshm _a{gxeaGk`hctirh G|tinipjtigm
\xkfic |gficy.njdime is mgt j |{gchss gb g|tinip.ime& tajt is& gb oiscgrh{ime gmh& {jtigmjf& g|tinxnjfth{mjtirh bg{ tah sgfxtigm gb j sgcijf |{gkfhn-\xkfic |{gkfhns njy mgt ajrh oistimctirh sgfxtigms-Sgcijf |{gkfhns j{h cgn|fhq& jng{|agxs jmooibbicxft tg ohbimh cgmcishfy4 hjca |j{tici|jmt im|gficy.njdime njy ohbimh tah |{gkfhn oibbh{hmtfy&im th{ns gb j simefh cgn|gmhmt gb j fj{eh{ issxh& g{uitaim tah cgmthqt gb jmgtah{ |{gkfhn- Bjcts&imbg{njtigm jmo stjtistics xsho tg jmjfyph |gficyjfth{mjtirhs j{h sxk`hctirhfy imth{|{htho ta{gxea|{hcgmchirho imth{hsts b{gn uaica e{gx|s jmoimoirioxjfs {hjca oibbh{hmt cgmcfxsigms cgmch{mimetah ‑khst’ cgx{sh gb jctigm- Imohho& g|tinipjtigmoghs mgt caj{jcth{iph |xkfic |fjmmime khcjxsh gbthmtah mxnkh{ gb |gssikfh jfth{mjtirhs bg{ jnhfig{jtimej sgcijf |{gkfhn is imohth{nimjth jt tah gxtsht.|gfiticjffy bhjsikfh jfth{mjtirhs hrgfrh b{gn |{g.chsshs gb |gfiticjf imth{jctigm jmo imth{rhmtigm-
!1) \gficy.Njdime is Symh{eistic
\gfiticjf imth{jctigm |{goxchs |gficy |{g|gsjfsjmo ohcisigms oibbh{hmt b{gn tagsh hs|gxsho ky jmysimefh |j{tici|jmt im j |gficy.njdime cgmbfict- Jstah scg|h gb oisje{hhnhmts grh{ |gficy |{g|gsjfshq|jmo jmo cgmt{jct& js mhu e{gx|s hmth{ jmo fhjrhj cgmbfict& js issxhs& egjfs jmo |h{ch|tigms j{hjo`xstho tg cajmeime |gfiticjf cgmoitigms& jmo jssx||g{t is ngkifipho j{gxmo cgn|{gnish |gsitigms&imitijf |{g|gsjfs j{h {hohbimho |{goxcime gxtcgnhstajt uh{h xm|{hoictjkfh jt tah gxtsht- \jst ohcisigmsgbthm |{goxch xmjmtici|jtho cgmshzxhmchs tajtimbfxhmch tah scg|h& cgmthmt jmo bhjsikifity gbcx{{hmt jfth{mjtirhs- Js oisje{hhnhmts j{ish b{gntah imth{jctigm gb ois|j{jth |j{tici|jmts tah |{gchssgb |gficy bg{nxfjtigm tjdhs gm j fibh gb its gum4
J\[IF& :95255

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