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Causal

Causal

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Published by: macpiyush on Jun 14, 2010
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11/26/2010

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Amity Business School
13-17-1
Causal Research-Experimentation
 
Amity Business School
13-27-2
 
Concept of Causality
A statement such as "
 X 
causes
" will have thefollowing meaning to an ordinary person and to ascientist.
 ____________________________________________________ Ordinary Meaning Scientific Meaning ____________________________________________________ 
 X 
is the only cause of 
.
is only one of a number of possible causes of 
.
 X 
must always lead to
The occurrence of 
 X 
makes the(
 X 
is a deterministicoccurrence o
more probablecause of 
).(
 X 
is a probabilistic cause of 
). It is possible to proveWe can never prove that
 X 
is athat
 X 
is a cause of 
.cause o
. At best, we caninfer that
 X 
is a cause of 
. ____________________________________________________ 
 
Amity Business School
13-37-3
 
Conditions for Causality
Concomitant variation
is the extent to which acause,
 X 
, and an effect,
, occur together or varytogether in the way predicted by the hypothesis under consideration.The
time order of occurrence
condition states thatthe causing event must occur either before or simultaneously with the effect; it cannot occur afterwards.The
absence of other possible causal factors
 means that the factor or variable being investigatedshould be the only possible causal explanation.

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