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SoC or system on chip seminar report

SoC or system on chip seminar report

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Seminar Report’ 09 System-on-Chip
1.INTRODUCTION
 Today's mobile phones have more processing power than typical desktop computers of the last millennium. Even the Portable Media Players (PMPs) have more sophisticated processors than the revolutionary Pentium processor launched 15 years back. On top of that,mobile phones, PMPs and other handheld devices are getting smaller and thinner withincreasing battery life.So, what makes these new generation handheld devices tick? Ticking at 200MHz or more, these devices are powered by a small silicon chip -the size of about 10mm x 10mm,which contains almost all components of a powerful computer including processor core,memory controller, interrupt controller, timer, multimedia co-processors or digital signal processor (DSP) etc. This silicon chip, along with the software running on it, is called aSystem-on-Chip or SoC.We use a cutting-edge technology for development of electronics and devices based onSystems-on-Chip (SoC) from the leading semiconductor manufacturers such as Intel, TexasInstruments, Atmel, Sharp, and NetSilicon. This breakthrough technology allows creatingcompetitive products with rich functionality while saving your time-to-market and expenses.Electronic device development with a new functional level based on MCU or DSP requiresignificant amount of resources and a highly qualified team of hardware engineers, oftenresulting in failing to fit into project time frame.The SoC has been talked about, marketed, and accepted in the new millennium,especially for embedded applications. More recently, with announcements of high-performanceSoC designs such as the Cell chip, and use of these chips in consumer products including theSony PlayStation 3 (PS3) and Microsoft® XBox, it has become clear that SoC designs willhave broad impact. What is really exciting about SoC architecture is that supercomputing andembedded computing may become the cutting edge of computer architecture. Fosupercomputing this is nothing new, but embedded systems have often followed rather than ledarchitecture.
 Dept. of Computer Science & Engg. College of Engg. Trikaripur, Cheemeni
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Seminar Report’ 09 System-on-Chip
What is a SoC?
System-on-chip is an integration of almost all components of a computer into a singleintegrated circuit (chip). The SoC consists of both the hardware (HW) components of thecomputer as well as the software (SW) that controls the microprocessor and peripherals.SoCs include not only the brains (e.g. microprocessor) but also all required ancillaryelectronics, such as switches, comparators, resistors, capacitors, timing elements, and digitallogic. While having the required interfaces (for example Ethernet, USB, LCD) onboard andalmost the same functionality as a single board industrial computer (SBC), the embeddedSystem-on-Chip (SoC) module provides additional advantages such as minimized footprint,operation in extended temperature range, minimized power consumption suitable for use inmobile environments.
 Figure 1: AMD Geode is a x86 compatible system-on-a-chip
Structure of SoC
A typical SoC consists of:
One microcontroller, one microprocessor or DSP core(s). Some SOCs calledmultiprocessor System-on-Chip (MPSoC) – include more than one processor core.
Memory blocks including a selection of ROM, RAM, EEPROM and Flash.
Timing sources including oscillators and phase-locked loops.
Peripherals including counter-timers, real-time timers and power-on reset generators.
 Dept. of Computer Science & Engg. College of Engg. Trikaripur, Cheemeni
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Seminar Report’ 09 System-on-Chip
External interfaces including industry standards such as USB, FireWire, Ethernet,USART, SPI.
Analog interfaces including ADCs and DACs.
Voltage regulators and power management circuits.
HARDWARESOFTWARE
Processor such as ARM core.
System bus-connecting the processor toother components- e.g. AMBA Bus.
Memory-some types of ROM,EEPROM or Flash.
Timers-oscillators, PLLs, real timeclocks etc.
LCD controllers or VGA Controller,with optional Touch Screen interface.
External Interfaces for USB, Firewire,etc. & for flash memory- CompactFlash, SD Card, Memory Stick etc.
Power management circuits, InterruptController and Memory Interface.
The operating system - ranges from asimple RTOS like eCOS or uITRON tohigh level OS such as Windows CE or Embedded Linux.
The operating system layer, generallytermed as the Board Support Package(BSP) abstracts the actual SoC HW.
Device drivers - which control the peripherals.
Middleware components - such asmultimedia engines, protocol stacksetc.
Application software - the UI, themedia players, phone applications, browsers etc.
Table 1: Components of SoC 
These blocks are connected by either a proprietary or industry-standard bus such as theAMBA bus from ARM. DMA controllers route data directly between external interfaces andmemory, by-passing the processor core and thereby increasing the data throughput of the SoC.
 Dept. of Computer Science & Engg. College of Engg. Trikaripur, Cheemeni
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