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Introduction to Vector Spaces, VectorAlgebras, and Vector Geometries
Richard A. SmithApril 4, 2011

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Preface
Vector spaces appear so frequently in both pure and applied mathematicsthat I felt that a work that promotes self-study of some of their more ele-mentary appearances in a manner that emphasizes some basic algebraic andgeometric concepts would be welcome. Undergraduate mathematics majorsin their junior or senior year are the intended primary readers, and I hopethat they and others su
ciently mathematically prepared will
nd its studyworthwhile..Copyright 2005-2010. Permission granted to transmit electronically. Maynot be sold by others for pro
t..Richard A. Smithrasgrn@aol.com

Contents
1 Fundamentals of Structure 1
1.1 What is a Vector Space? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Some Vector Space Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.3 Subspace, Linear Combination and Span . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.4 Independent Set, Basis and Dimension . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5 Sum and Direct Sum of Subspaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.6 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2 Fundamentals of Maps 15
2.1 Structure Preservation and Isomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . 152.2 Kernel, Level Sets and Quotient Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182.3 Short Exact Sequences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212.4 Projections and Re
ections on
=
. . . . . . . . . . . 242.5 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
3 More on Maps and Structure 29
3.1 Function Spaces and Map Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.2 Dual of a Vector Space, Dual of a Basis . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293.3 Annihilators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313.4 Dual of a Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323.5 The Contragredient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333.6 Product Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343.7 Maps Involving Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353.8 Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
4 Multilinearity and Tensoring 41
4.1 Multilinear Transformations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 414.2 Functional Product Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42iii
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