Influences values and beliefs
Affects definition of health and illness
“Healthy” people fulfill their roles and have appropriate & adaptive behavior.
“ Ill” people are those who fail to fulfill roles and carry out responsibilities, and have inappropriate behavior.
A state of complete physical, mental, & social wellness, not merely the absence of disease or infirmity
Aposit iv e state ofwe l l- being
People fulfill responsibilities, function effectively, and are satisfied with them-selves and interpersonal relationships
2.Maximization of one’s potential 3.Tolerance of life’s uncertainties 4. Self-esteem
1. To provide standardized nomenclature and language for all
2. To present defining characteristics that differentiate diagnoses
3. To assist in identifying underlying causes of disorders
1.Axis I: Major psychiatric disorders
2.Axis II: Personality Disorders or Developmental Disorders (e.g. Mental Retardation), maladaptive defense mechanisms
3.Axis III: General medical conditions that relate to axes I and II or have a bearing on treatment
4.Axis IV: Psychosocial/environmental stressors affecting client management
5.Axis V: Global assessment of functioning (GAF)
Attempt to explain human behavior, health, and mental illness.
Suggest how normal development occurs based on the theorist’s beliefs, assumptions, and view of the world.
Suggest strategies that the clinician can use to work with clients
Repressed sexual impulses and desires motivate much human behavior.
Symptoms in women with no physiologic basis were considered ―hysterical‖ or neurotic behavior
Problems resulted from childhood trauma or failure to complete tasks of psychosexual development.
Women repressed their unmet needs, sexual feelings and traumatic events.
A person’s dreams reflect his or her subconscious and have significant hidden, symbolic meaning.
Primary method in psychoanalysis which involves discussing a client’s dreams to discover their true meaning and significance
A woman has recurrent frightening dreams about snakes chasing her. How might Freud interpret this?
Attempt to protect the self and cope with basic drives or emotionally painful thoughts, feelings, or events
Most operate at the unconscious level
e.g. A person who was diagnosed with cancer and has 6 months to live refuses to talk about the illness, or a cancer patient exhibits a
11.R at ionaliz at ion: Excusing own behavior to avoid guilt, responsibility, conflict, anxiety, or loss of self-respect
12.Reaction Formation: Acting the opposite of what one thinks or feels
13.R egression: Moving back to a previous developmental stage to feel safe or have needs met
14.R epression: Excluding emotionally painful or anxiety-provoking thoughts & feelings from conscious awareness
16.Subli mat ion: Substituting a socially acceptable activity for an impulse that is unacceptable
17.Subst it ut ion: Replacing the desired gratification with one that is more readily available
18.Suppression: Conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts and feelings from conscious awareness
Major site of tension and gratification: the mouth, lips, and tongue
The “Id” is present at birth and develops by the 6th month; The “Ego” develops gradually from rudimentary structure present at birth
Major source of interest: Anus and surrounding area
Focus: Acquisition of voluntary sphincter control (toilet training)
The “Superego”d e v e lop s
If the child had aSTR IC T toilet training (AnalR e t e nt iv e): Clean, Organized, Obedient, OBSESSIVE-COMPULSIVE PD
Thegenit a ls are the focus of interest, stimulation, and excitement
Thepenis is the organ of interest for both sexes.
Masturbation is common.
Oedipal / Elektra complex (wish to marry opposite-sex parent and be rid of same-sex parent)
Resolution of Oedipal complex
Sexual drive channeled into socially appropriate activities such as school work and sports (Sublimation Defense Mechanism).
Formation of thes uper e go
Final stage of psychosexual development
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