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Oxford GCSE Maths for Edexcel New 2010 Edition Spec A Foundation Student Book sample material

Oxford GCSE Maths for Edexcel New 2010 Edition Spec A Foundation Student Book sample material

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Published by: Oxford University Press Children and Schools on Jun 16, 2010
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N6
   O  r   i  e  n   t  a   t   i  o  n
 What I will learnWhat thisleads to What I needto know 
 
Recognise and use squares and cubes,and corresponding roots
 
Multiply and divide by powers of 10
 
Recognise prime numbers and usedivisibility tests
 
Understand and use the terms factor and multiple
 
Find the highest common factor and least common multiple
3
N1N2
1
Calculate
a
 
7
7
b
2
2
2
c
 
10
10
10
d
32
100
2
Find the missing number in this calculation.___
___
25
3
Does 244 divide by 4?Explain how you know.
   C   h  e  c   k   i  n   R   i  c   h   t  a  s   k
This diagram shows a 5 by 3 rectangular grid o squares.The main diagonal o the rectangle passes through seven o the squares.What is the connection between the length and width o the rectangle andthe number o squares crossed by the main diagonal?
 
Introduction
When you use the internet to pay or goods you need to know that your inancial detailsare sae. To make these details secure they are turned into a secret code (encrypted).The message can be encrypted using the product o two very large prime numbers – theperson receiving the message has to know both o these prime numbers so that theycan decrypt the message.
What’s the point?
The problems involved in identiying very large prime numbers make it very diicultor someone intercepting an encrypted message to crack the code.
 o w e  s  , o  o  t   s  a  d  p i  m e  s 
N5
 
Probability revision
240
 
240241
 
241
   A   O   3
Grade E
You can say 4
3
inlots o dierentways:4
3
 
4 to thepower o 3’ 
‘4 cubed’ 
‘the cubeo 4’You can say 5
2
inlots o dierentways5
2
 
‘5 to the
power
o 2’ 
‘5 squared’ 
‘the squareo 5’You will not beallowed to usea calculator inyour Paper 1assessment.
 
A
square
number is the result of multiplying a
whole
number by itself.
This spread will show you how to:
Use square and cube numbers
Use the square and cube unctions o a calculator
Squares and cubes
Exercise N5.1
1st square 2nd square 3rd square 4th squarenumber number number number
1 4 9 16
1
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
3
3
3
2
4
4
4
2
Square numbers can be written using
index
notation.5
2
 
5
5 12
2
 
12
12 
25
144Use the
 x 
2
function key on a calculator to find the square of a number.To find 34
2
, type
3 4
2
 
The display should read 1156.
 
A
cube
number is the result of multiplying a whole number by itself and thenmultiplying by that number again.
Cube numbers can be represented using 3-D drawings of cubes.
1st cube 2nd cube 3rd cube 4th cubenumber number number number
1 8 27 64
1
1
1 2
2
2 3
3
3 4
4
4 
1
3
 
2
3
 
3
3
 
4
3
Cube numbers can be written using index notation.4
3
 
4
4
4 14
3
 
14
14
14 
64
2744Use the
 x 
3
function key on a calculator to find the cube of a number.To find 19
3
, you would type
1 9
3
 
The display should read 6859.
1
Find these numbers.
a
the 4th square number
b
the 8th square number
c
the 20th square number
d
the 5th cube number
e
the 7th cube number
the 10th cube number
2
Use your calculator to work out each of these squares and cubes.
a
6
2
 
b
11
2
 
c
14
2
 
d
23
2
e
31
2
 
47
2
 
4
3
 
h
6
3
i
8
3
 
 j
13
3
 
k
18
3
 
l
21
3
   P  r  o   b   l  e  m
3
Some numbers can be represented as the sum of two squarenumbers.For example 1
2
 
2
2
 
1
4
5.Try to find all the numbers less than 50 that can be representedas the sum of two square numbers.
4
Use your calculator to work out each of these.
a
3
2
 
2
2
 
b
5
2
 
3
2
 
c
6
2
 
2
3
d
4
3
 
4
2
 
e
10
2
 
8
2
 
13
2
 
4
3
14
2
 
5
3
 
h
6
3
 
13
2
 
i
12
2
 
13
2
 
14
2
 j
6
3
 
7
3
 
8
3
5
Use the
 x 
2
and
 x 
3
function keys on your calculator to work out eachof these. Give your answer to two decimal places as appropriate.
a
2.5
2
 
b
49
2
 
c
3.2
3
 
d
4.8
2
e
7.3
2
 
4.9
3
 
1.2
2
 
h
0.5
2
i
9.9
2
 
 j
9.9
3
 
k
(5 cm)
2
 
l
(4 m)
3
N5.1
Keywords
CubeIndexPowerSquare
   A   O   3
Consecutivemeans ‘next to’,or example 4and 5
   P  r  o   b   l  e  m
6
 
a
Work out these.3
2
 
2
2
 
__ 4
2
 
3
2
 
__ 5
2
 
4
2
 
__
b
Write anything you have noticed about your answers.
c
Copy and complete this table and investigate for the next sevenpairs of consecutive integers.
Squarenumber Squarenumber  Answer 
3
2
2
2
3
2
 
2
2
 
9
__4
2
3
2
4
2
 
3
2
 
16
__5
2
6
2
 
Probability revision
242
 
242243
 
243
   A   O   2   A   O   3
Grade D
Exercise N5.2
 
A
square root
is a number that when multiplied by itself is equal to a given number.
7
7
49 so you can say that the square root of 49
7.
Square roots are written using
 
__
notation.
 
___
 
49
7You should try to learn the first 10 square numbers, then you will alsoknow their square roots.
1st square number
1
1
1
 
__
 1
12nd square number
2
2
4
 
__
 4
23rd square number
3
3
9
 
__
 9
3
You can estimate the square root of a square number.Use the
 
__
 
 x 
function key on a calculator to find the square root of a number.To find
 
____
 
289 , you would type
2
9
   
 x 
8
 
The display should read 17.
 
A
cube root
is a number that when multiplied by itself and then multiplied byitself again is equal to a given number.
2
2
2
8 so the cube root of 8
2 or
3
 
 
__
 
8
2Use the
3
 
 
__
 
 x 
function key on a calculator to find the cube root of anumber.To find
3
 
 
_____
 
1728 , you would type
1 827
   
 x 
3
 
The display shouldread 12.
Square roots and cube roots are often not whole numbers so you usuallyround your answer to two decimal places. 
 
____
 
300
17.320 508 08... 
17.32 (2 dp)
This spread will show you how to:
Estimate and use square roots and cube roots
Use the square root and cube root unctions o a calculator
Square roots and cube roots
N5.2
Keywords
Cube rootSquare root
You will not beallowed to usea calculator inyour Paper 1assessment.
1
Find these numbers.
a
 
 
___
 
25
b
 
 
__
 9
c
 
 
___
 
16
d
 
 
__
 1
e
 
 
__
 4
2
Calculate these using a calculator, giving your answer to 2 dp asappropriate.
a
 
 
___
 
40
b
 
 
___
 
61
c
 
 
____
 
180
d
 
 
____
 
249
e
 
 
____
 
676
3
Calculate these using the
3
 
 
__
 
key on your calculator. Give your answersto 2 dp where appropriate.
a
 
3
 
 
___
 
27
b
 
3
 
 
____
 
512
c
 
3
 
 
_____
 
3375
d
 
3
 
 
____
 
100
e
 
3
 
 
_______
 
24 389
6
Do not use a calculator for these questions.
a
Between which two numbers does
 
___
 
95 lie?
b
Between which two numbers does
 
____
 
150 lie?
c
Between which two numbers does
 
____
 
300 lie?
d
Between which two numbers does
3
 
 
___
 
80 lie?
   F  u  n  c   t   i  o  n  a   l   M  a   t   h  s
 
5
 
a
A square has an area of 144 m
2
. What is the side lengthof the square? 
b
John thinks of a number. He multiplies the number by itself.The answer is 529. What number did John think of? 
c
Mr Mow designs a paddock. The paddock has to be in theshape of a square. The area of the paddock has to be 4000 m
2
.What length should each of the sides of the paddock be? (Giveyour answer to the nearest metre.) 
d
Nelly digs a hole in the shape of a cube. The volume of theearth she digs out to make the hole is 64 000 cm
3
. How deepis the hole?
   P  r  o   b   l  e  m
4
Harry has mixed up his answers to these questions.
a
Without using a calculator, match each of these questions to thecorrect answer.
 
 Estimates A B C  D  E F  G H
98 711131014 
 Questions 123 4 5 6 7 
1693431218164 100019664 
333
b
Check your answers using your calculator.
 
See how many of the questions and answers you matchedcorrectly.
 
   E  x  a  m  p   l  e
__
289 is a square number. Work out
 
____
 
289 without using a calculator.15
15
22520
20
40017
17
289So
 
____
 
289
17
This is too low, so
 
____
 
289 is greater than 15This is too high, so
 
____
 
289 is less than 20Correct
You can use the grid method i youare stuck!
7
10
7
707
7
49
10
10
10
1007
10
70
107
1007070
49289
 

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