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Psychological Testing

Psychological Testing

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Published by: Jene Lois Mendoza Sarmiento on Jun 16, 2010
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11/20/2012

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EMPLOYEE SELECTION 2: PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTINGPSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
are the important technique in selecting personnel, and this is widespread at alllevels and periods of life.
 
PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
is a measuring device, a yardstick applied in consistent and systematic fashion to measurea sample of behavior.
PURPOSES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TEST
1.
SELECTION,
the emphasis is on finding a person with the right qualifications for a particular job.
2.
PLACEMENT,
the emphasis is on the individual. The problem is to find the right kind of job for a particular  person.
CHARACTERISTICS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
1.
STANDARDIZATION
refers to the consistency or uniformity of the conditions and procedures for administering a test.
2.
OBJECTIVITY
, as a characteristic of psychological tests, refers primarily to the scoring of the test is liableto misinterpretation because of scorer’s attitude, prejudices, or momentary mood.
3.
NORMS
refers specifically to the average or typical performance on the test: this does not imply a level of “normal” or desirable behavior as we might use the term in everyday conversation.
4.
RELIABILITY
refers to the consistency of response on a test. There are several methods for determiningreliability:
a.
TEST RETEST METHOD
involves administering a test twice to the same group of people andcorrelating the two sets of scores. The closer the correlation coefficient (called the reliabilitycoefficient in this case) approaches a perfect positive correlation (+1.00), the more reliable is thetest.
 b.
 EQUIVALENT-FORMS METHOD
uses a test-retest approach. Instead of taking the same test asecond time, a similar form of the test is given, and the two sets of scores are correlated.
c.
 SPLIT-HALVES METHOD
. The test is taken once, divided in half, and the two sets of items arecorrelated with each other.
5.
VALIDITY
one of the most important requirements of any psychological test is that it measures accuratelywhat it is intended to measure.
TWO TYPES OF VALIDITY:
a.
CRITERION-RELATED VALIDITY 
is determined by the methods of 
 predictive validity
and
concurrent validity.
PREDICTIVE VALIDITY
involves giving the test to all job applicants in a specific time periodand then hiring them all regardless of their performance on the test,
CONCURRENT VALIDITY
involves giving the test to employees already on the job and thencorrelating test scores with job performance.B.
 RATIONAL VALIDITY 
is established-by the concept of 
 face validity
– how valid or relevant the testappears to the person taking it.
TWO APPROACHES IN ESTABLISHING RATIONAL VALIDITY OF A TEST
:
a.
CONTENT VALIDITY 
involves an attempt to assess the content of a test to assure that it includesa representative sample of all the questions that could be asked.
 b.
CONSTRUCT VALIDITY 
is an attempt to determine the psychological characteristics measured by a test.
c.
FACE VALIDITY 
 
, concerned appears to be related to the job for which the person is being tested.6.
VALIDITY GENERARALIZATION
. The other idea of differential validity is now being replaced by validity generalization. On the basis of large-scale analysis of hundreds of previous validity studies (an approachknown as
meta-analysis
) psychologists have concluded that tests that are valid in one situation are also valid in other situation.
A NUMBER OF STEPS ARE REQUIRED TO ESTABLISHED A TESTING PROGRAM:
1. Conducting a job and workers analysis2. Finding or developing a suitable tests
 
3. Conducting an item analysis of each question on a test4. Determining the level of difficulty of each question5. Establishing the reliability and validity of the test6. Setting the cut-off scores
TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS: ADMINISTRATION
1.
 INDIVIDUAL AND GROUP TEST 
. Individual test, administered to one person at a time, are more costlyand therefore, are used to lesser degree in industry than a group test.
2.
 SPEED AND POWER TEST  SPEED TEST 
has a fixed time limit at which point everyone taking the test must stop.
 POWER TEST 
has no time limit, examines are allowed as much time as they feel they need to finish the test.
3.PAPER-AND-PENCIL AND PERFORMANCE TEST 
 PAPER-AND-PENCIL TESTS 
are the kind of test wherein questions are in printed form and the answers arerecorded on an answer sheet.
 PERFORMANCE TESTS 
may take longer to administer than paper-and-pencil tests and also may require anindividual testing operation.4.OBJECTIVE AND SUBJECTIVE SCORING
OBJECTIVITY 
is the majority of the test used for industrial selection purposes are objective.
 SUBJECTIVITY i 
n test scoring, as in interviewing, allows personal prejudices and attributes toenter into the testing situation. This can lead to distortion of the evaluation.
TYPES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS: BEHAVIORAL MEASURE
1.
COGNITIVE ABILITY 
(
 
 better known as intelligence tests) are used in individual selection. Intelligence testitems relate mostly to educational material such as spelling, reading, or mathematics.
2.
 INTERESTS 
Interest inventories are of greater value in vocational guidance and counseling than in industrial personnelselection.
3.APTITUDE
 APTITUDE TESTS 
must be created especially to measure the skills required by that job, but there are published tests that measure general aptitudes for mechanical and clerical skills.
4.
MOTOR ABILITY 
 .
Many jobs in industry and the military require a high degree of motor skill involvingmuscular coordination, finger dexterity, or precise eye hand coordination.The MacQuarrie Test for mechanical ability is one of the few tests of motor ability in paper-and-pencil form. The sevensubsets include:
1.
TRACING-
a line is drawn through very small openings in a number of vertical lines.
2.
TAPPING-
dots are made on paper as quickly as possible.
3.
DOTTING
- dots are made in circles as quickly as possible.
4.
COPYING
-simple designs are copied.
5.
LOCATION
- specific points must be located in smaller size version of a stimulus figure.
6.
BLOCKS
- the number of blocks in a drawing must be determined.
7.
PURSUIT
- the visual tracing of assorted lines in a maze.7
. PROJECTIVE TECHNIQUES
 PROJECTIVE TESTS 
of personality were developed primarily for use in clinical psychology for work withemotionally distributed individuals.
ADVANTAGES OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING
Tests can aid the selection process (assuming thorough development research), they are objective measures, and their effectiveness is easier to evaluate than some other selection devices. There are no alternative better than tests in termsof high validity and lack adverse impact.
LIMITATIONS AND DANGERS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTING

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