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7281508 Cracks in Concrete

7281508 Cracks in Concrete

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Published by natarajannalanth

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: natarajannalanth on Jun 16, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/01/2012

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AUTHOR: AU YONG THEAN SENGwww.madisonvelocity.blogspot.com
TOPICS HIGHLIGHTED
CRACKS IN CONCRETE: INTRODUCTION
Why Does Concrete Crack?Non-structural CracksStructural CracksWhat are the differences between structural and non-structural crack?
TYPES OF CRACK AND HOW IT OCCURS
Sulfate attack crackLoading crackPlastic shrinkage crack
 
Drying shrinkage crack
 
D-cracking
 
Alkali-aggregate reaction crack
 
Thermal crack
 
Settlement crackCorrosion
 
crackCrazingTree growth crack
PREVENT BEFORE IT’S TOO LATE!
Optimum water ratioCuring methodSolid groundProper usage of materialControl jointsReinforcement steelCover for reinforcementCoating on reinforcementCoating on concreteCorrosion inhibitor Cathodic protection
 
AUTHOR: AU YONG THEAN SENGwww.madisonvelocity.blogspot.com
CRACKS IN CONCRETE: INTRODUCTION
Why Does Concrete Crack?
Cracks! At the sight of a crack in concrete, most of us panic. Lots of questionsasked and few answers.
Most cracks
occur as a result of 
shrinkage of concrete
. Shrinkage is simply a reduction in the volume of concrete as ithardens. If this reduction in volume were unrestricted, then a crack would notoccur. However, in reality, ground friction and a number of things such asstructural connections inhibit free shrinkage and thus cause cracks.How much shrinkage is normal? A
100-foot-long
regular-weight concrete slabnormally would
shrink by about 3/4 inch
. In other words, you should expectcracks totaling in widths up to 3/4 inch in every 100 feet of concrete. Lightweightconcrete shrinks more. It is important to note that concrete does crack and thatthis is normal. What is not normal is an unsightly and excessive amount of cracks.
Non-structural Cracks
Not every crack threatens the structural safety of a building. In fact, in manyinstances, cracks are merely
cosmetic
in nature. These cracks are typically seenin flat work such as driveways, patio, walkways and curbs.Typical causes of these cracks are
o
Poor workmanship
o
Inappropriate joint detailing
o
Higher shrinkage of concreteSometimes such nonstructural cracks in driveways and sidewalks become morethan just an eyesore. Tree roots and impact from vehicles can cause raveling aswell as vertical and horizontal offsets at the cracks. When these offsets becometrip hazards, repairs are necessary.
Structural Cracks
A
majority of structural cracks
occur as a result of the following conditions:
o
Design deficiency
o
Construction deficiency
o
Settlement or heaving of soil
o
Reinforcement corrosionSometimes structural cracks manifest themselves with some side effects. Doorsand windows do not open and close easily. Floors feel uneven. Vinyl flooring
 
AUTHOR: AU YONG THEAN SENGwww.madisonvelocity.blogspot.com
tears as a result of crack movement. Stucco (plaster applied while soft to cover exterior walls or surface) begins to show new cracks and even interior cornersmay develop new cracks. Longitudinal cracks can develop along the length of thefoundation as a result of corrosion of reinforcement.
What are the differences between structural and non-structural crack?
To summarize what had been discussed above on their definitions,
structuralcrack
refers to crack that developed
at the core or frame
that form thefoundation of the building itself. Normally, any types of crack occurred in thiscase is
very dangerous
and must be dealt immediately.
Non-structural
as thename itself implies, refers to any parts of the building that
doesn’t belong to thecore or frame
of the building for example wall (except load bearing wall),driveway, patio, and walkway. Cracks occurred in this case are
not thatthreatening
if compared to structural crack. Still, this doesn’t mean that it won’tharm the occupants living inside, as no matter what structure if left not properlycared will cause catastrophe eventually.
Figure 1: (clockwise from top left) i) Wing wall crack of a tunnel (non-structural) ii) Verandah crack(non- structural) iii) Column crack and spalling (structural) iv) Beam crack of a bridge (structural)

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