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Published by: darshill on Jun 17, 2010
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Communication Systems
 Information Processes and Technology – The HSC Course
In this chapter you will learn to:
use applications to create and transmit messagesestablish a communications link and describe thesteps that take place in its establishmentidentify and describe specified protocols atdifferent stages of the communicationidentify client processing and server processingdescribe the advantages and disadvantages of client – server architectureuse a communication system to transmit andreceive audio, video and text datafor given examples, identify the participants,information/data, information technology, needand purposefor given examples explain how data is transmittedand receivedfor given examples, identify the advantages anddisadvantages of the systemcompare and contrast traditional communicationsystems with current electronic methodsrepresent a communication systemdiagrammaticallypredict developments in communication systems based on current trendssimulate activities involved with communicationin areas such as – e commerce – EFTPOS – Internet bankingfor a given scenario, choose and justify the mostappropriate transmission mediadiagrammatically represent the topologydescribe the location and role of hardwarecomponents on the network compare the functions of different hardwarecomponentsidentify the main characteristics of network operating softwarecompare and contrast the Internet, intranets andextranetsdistinguish between data in analog and digitalformjustify the need to encode and decode dataidentify where in a communication system signalconversion takes placedescribe the structure of a data packetdescribe methods to check the accuracy of data being transmitteddetail the network management software in a givennetwork describe the role of the network administrator andconduct network administration tasksdemonstrate logon and logoff procedures, and justify their useadopt procedures to manage electronic maildescribe and justify the need for ethical behaviour when using the Internetdiscuss the social and ethical issues that have arisenfrom use of the Internet, including: – the availability of material normally restricted – electronic commerce – domination of content and control of access to theInternet – the changing nature of social interactionsidentify the issues associated with the use of communication systems including: – teleconferencing systems – messaging systems – e commerce – EFTPOS – electronic bankingdesign and implement a communication system tomeet an individual needpredict developments in communication systems based on current trends
Which will make you more able to:
apply and explain an understanding of the nature andfunction of information technologies to a specific practical situationexplain and justify the way in which informationsystems relate to information processes in a specificcontextanalyse and describe a system in terms of theinformation processes involveddevelop solutions for an identified need whichaddress all of the information processesevaluate and discuss the effect of information systemson the individual, society and the environmentdemonstrate and explain ethical practice in the use of information systems, technologies and processespropose and justify ways in which informationsystems will meet emerging needsjustify the selection and use of appropriate resourcesand tools to effectively develop and manage projectsassess the ethical implications of selecting and usingspecific resources and tools, recommends and justifies the choicesanalyse situations, identify a need and developsolutionsselect and apply a methodical approach to planning,designing or implementing a solutionimplement effective management techniquesuse methods to thoroughly document thedevelopment of individual or team projects
Chapter 3
 Information Processes and Technology – The HSC Course
In this chapter you will learn about:
Characteristics of communication systems
communication systems as being those systems whichenable users to send and receive data and informationthe framework in which communication systems function,demonstrated by the
Fig 3.1
modelthe functions performed within the communicationsystems in passing messages between source anddestination, including: – message creation – organisation of packets at the interface between sourceand transmitter  – signal generation by the transmitter  – transmission – synchronising the exchange – addressing and routing – error detection and correction – security and managementthe roles of protocols in communication – handshaking and its importance in a communicationslink  – functions performed by protocols at different levelsthe client - server model – the role of the client and the server  – thin clients and fat clients – examples of clients such as web browsers and mailclients – examples of servers such as print servers, mail serversand web server 
Examples of communication systems
teleconferencing systemsmessaging systems, including email, voice mail and voiceover Internet protocol (VOIP)other systems dependent on communication technologysuch as: – e commerce – EFTPOS – electronic banking
Transmitting and receiving in communication systems
transmission media including: – wired transmission, including twisted pair, coaxialcable and optic fibre – wireless transmission, including microwave, satellite,radio and infraredcharacteristics of media in terms of speed, capacity, costand securitycommunication protocols, including: – application level protocols, including http, smtp andSSL – communication control and addressing level protocols,including TCP and IP – transmission level protocols, including Ethernet andToken ringstrategies for error detection and error correctionnetwork topologies, including star, bus, ring, hybrid andwireless networksthe functions performed by hardware components incommunication systems including – hubs and switches – routers – modems – bridges and gateways – network interface cards (NIC) – mobile phones – cable – wireless access points – Bluetooth devicescharacteristics of network operating softwarethe similarities and differences between the Internet,intranets and extranets
Other information processes in communication systems
collecting, such as – the phone as the collection device with voice mail – EFTPOS terminal as a collection device for electronic bankingprocessing, including – encoding and decoding analog and digital signals – formation of data packets – routing – encryption and decryption – error checking- parity bit check - check sum- cycle redundancy check displaying, such as – the phone as the display device with voice mail – EFTPOS terminal as a display device for electronic banking
Managing communication systems
network administration tasks, such as: – adding/removing users – assigning users to printers – giving users file access rights – installation of software and sharing with users – client installation and protocol assignment – logon and logoff procedures – network based applications
Issues related to communication systems
• security• globalisationchanging nature of work interpersonal relationshipse crime• legalvirtual communitiescurrent and emerging trends in communications,including – blogs – wikis – RSS feeds – podcasts – online radio, TV and video on demand – 3G technologies for mobile communications
Communication Systems
 Information Processes and Technology – The HSC Course
Communication systems enable people and systems to share and exchange data andinformation electronically. This communication occurs between transmitting andreceiving hardware and software over a network – each device on a network is calleda node. Consider the diagram in
Fig 3.1
. As each message leaves its source it isencoded into a form suitable for transmission along the communication medium,which could be a wired or wireless connection. During its travels, the message mayfollow a variety of different paths through many different networks and connectiondevices. Different types of connection device use different strategies to determinewhich path each message will follow – switches decide based on the MAC address,whilst routers use the IP address, for example. Eventually the message arrives at thereceiver, who decodes the message as it arrives at its destination. The network could be a local area network (LAN), a wide area network (WAN), it could be the Internet,an intranet, extranet or any combination of network types.For communication to be successful requires components to agree on a set of rulesknown as protocols. Establishing and agreeing on which set of protocols will be usedand the specific detail of each protocol must occur before any data can be transmittedor received – this process is known as handshaking. Protocols are classified accordingto the level or layer in which they operate. In the IPT course we classify protocols intothree levels, namely; Application Level, Communication Control and AddressingLevel, and Transmission Level (refer 
Fig 3.1
). As messages pass through the interface between sender and transmitter they are encoded, meaning they descend the stack of  protocols and are finally transmitted – each message is progressively encoded usingthe protocol (or protocols) operating at each level. Conversely, as messages arereceived they pass through the interface between receiver and destination – theoriginal message is decoded by each protocol in turn as it ascends through each levelof the protocol stack.In the IPT syllabus three levels of protocols are defined; this framework provides asimplified view of the more detailed OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model. TheOSI model defines seven layers, where each layer can be further expanded into sub-
Fig 3.1Communication system framework from NSW Board of Studies IPT syllabus (modified).
SourceReceiver DestinationTransmitter Switchingand RoutingMedium Medium
 Application LevelCommunicationControl and  Addressing LevelTransmission Level
n c  o d i  n g
   D  e  c  o   d   i  n  g

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