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31251484 Chapter 6 Electrochemistry

31251484 Chapter 6 Electrochemistry

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Published by: syafieq_syaf937438 on Jun 17, 2010
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10/15/2010

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Electrolytes
Electrolytes are compounds which when molten or dissolved in water conduct electric current and aredecomposed in the process .
Non-electrolyte
 A non-electrolyte is a liquid which does not allow the passage of electricity.
 
 Molten Solution
This is composed of lead(II) ions,
Pb
2 +
, and bromide ions, Br 
-
. Its chemical formula is thereforePbBr 
2
.
A suitable apparatus which could be used to carry out this electrolysis is shown in Figure above.
The bulb helps to show when electricity is flowing in the circuit, and until the lead(II) bromide iscompletely molten, the bulb does not light up . This confirms that electrolytes have to be moltenfor the ions to start to move to the electrodes and thereby conduct electricity.
At the Cathode At the AnodeObservation
 
 
When
 
electricity
 
is
lowing,
a
silvery
 d
eposit
 
o
le
ad m
et
a
l
or 
m
s
 
on
 
the
 
c
a
tho
d
e.
I
n
fa
ct,
a
s
 
it
 
is
m
olten,
 
it
 
is
m
ore
 
likely
 
to
d
rip
 
o
ff 
in
a m
olten
b
lo
 b
.
 
Observation
 
 
When
 
electricity
 
is
lowing,
b
rown
 fum
es
 
o
f b
ro
m
ine
 
g
a
s
a
re
 
seen
a
t
 
the
a
no
d
e.
 
H
alf equation
 Pb
2+
+ 2
e
---> Pb
H
alf equation
 2B
-
---> B
2
+
e
 
Explanation
 
 
T
he
 
le
ad(II)
ions,
a
s
 
they
a
re
 
 positive,
 m
ove
 
to
 
the
 
neg
a
tive
 
c
a
tho
d
e,
 
where
 
e
a
ch
 
ion
 
g
a
ins
 
two
 
electrons
 
to
or 
m a
le
ada
to
m
.
 
 
A
ny
 
re
a
ction
a
t
a
c
a
tho
d
e
 
involve
d
is
 a
g
a
in
 
in
 
electrons.
 
T
his
 
is
 
c
a
lle
d
re
du
ction
 
or 
m
ore
 
ex
a
ctly,
 
c
a
tho
d
ic
 
re
du
ction
 
.
 
Explanation
 
 
T
he
b
ro
m
i
d
e
 
ions,
a
s
 
they
a
re
 
neg
a
tive,
m
ove
 
to
 
the
 
 positive
 a
no
d
e,
 
where
 
e
a
ch
 
loses
a
n
 
electron
 
to
or 
m a b
ro
m
ine
a
to
m
.
 
 
T
hen
 
two
 
o
these
 
newly
or 
m
e
da
to
m
s
 
co
mb
ine
 
to
or 
m b
ro
m
ine
 
g
a
s.
 
 
A
ny
 
re
a
ction
a
t
a
n
a
no
d
e
 
involves
a
 
loss
 
o
electrons.
 
In summary, the lead(II) bromide is split into its component elements:PbBr 
2
---> Pb + Br 
2
 
Electrolysis of Aqueous Sulphuric Acid 
As sulphuric acid is aqueous, it is composed not only of hydrogen ions (H
+
) and sulphate ions(SO
42-
), but also of hydroxide ions (OH
-
) from the water.
H
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O --> 2H
+
+ SO
42-
+ H
+
+ OH
-
 

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