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EEM328 Electronics Laboratory - Experiment 2 - Diode Characteristics

EEM328 Electronics Laboratory - Experiment 2 - Diode Characteristics

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Published by donatello84
The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the diode. Some of the characteristics that will be investigated are the I-V curve and the rectification
properties.
The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the diode. Some of the characteristics that will be investigated are the I-V curve and the rectification
properties.

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Published by: donatello84 on Jun 17, 2010
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EEM 328ELECTRONICS LABORATORYEXPERIMENT 2DIODE CHARACTERISTICSPURPOSE
The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the diode. Some of thecharacteristics that will be investigated are the I-V curve and the rectificationproperties.
THEORY
 Diode
The diode is a device formed from a junction of n-type and p-typesemiconductor material. The lead connected to the p-type material is called the
anode
and the lead connected to the n-type material is the
cathode
. In general,the cathode of a diode is marked by a solid line on the diode (see Figure 1.1).An ideal diode acts as a unilateral switch. It has a voltage-current characteristicas shown in the Figure 1-2. When forward biased the diode acts as a shortcircuit. When reverse biased, it acts as an open circuit. No power is dissipatedin an ideal diode biased in either direction since either the voltage across it iszero (forward biased) or the current through it is zero (reverse biased).Figure 1-2: Ideal Diode
 
A more realistic approximation to a real diode is a series circuit containing anideal diode, a battery and a resistor (see Figure 1-3). This model is called as
 piecewise linear model
or
small signal equivalent model
. The battery introducesa small offset voltage, V
 j
, that must be exceeded before the diode beginsconducting under forward bias conditions. The value of V
 j
is determined by thetype of semiconductor used in the p-n junction. The resistor approximates thesemiconductor resistance under forward bias and determines the amount of dissipation in the diode.Figure 1-3: Real DiodeFigure 1-4: Real Diode CharacteristicWhen a real diode is reverse biased a minuscule leakage current flows throughthe device. This current can be effectively ignored as long as the reversebreakdown voltage of the diode is not exceeded (see Figure 1.4). At potentialsgreater than the reverse breakdown voltage, charge is pulled through the p-n junction by the strong electric fields in the device and a large reverse currentflows. This usually destroys the device. There are special diodes that aredesigned to operate in breakdown. Such diodes are called zener diodes and usedas voltage regulators.
 
 The voltage current relationship of semiconductor diode is expressed as
I
D
=Is (e
VD
 n
VT
-1).
The relationship given in this equation is valid for bothforward and reverse bias; however, it fails to be valid when the reverse biasvoltage reaches a value that causes breakdown. This value of reverse biasvoltage is called
 zener voltage.
The parameters Is and
n
can be foundexperimentally. For this purpose the straight line portion of iv curve on asemilogarithmic plot is extrapolated to intercept the current axis at V
D
=0 (figure1-4). I
S
is read from the graph and
n
is calculated using the following expression:
 n
= (V
D1
-V
D2
) / (V
T
ln (I
D1
 /I
D2
))
.
Real diodes have internal resistance Rd whichcan be found as following; Rd=
 I 
.
 
PRE-LAB
1)
 
Study the operation of the diode full-wave bridge circuit in Figure 1-5.Given Vs=12sin(2
Pi
f t), f=60 Hz, R=10 K and silicon diodes, sketch Vsand V
R
(t) for t between 0 and 35msec.2 )Study the piecewise model of diodes.Find a mathematical expression forinternal resistance of a diode?Figure 1-5: Fullwave rectifier
PROCEDURE
1-) Diode V-I CharacteristicsFigure 1.6

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