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EEM328 Electronics Laboratory - Experiment 1 - Opamp Characteristics

EEM328 Electronics Laboratory - Experiment 1 - Opamp Characteristics

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Published by donatello84
The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the operational amplifier.
Some of the characteristics that will be investigated include offset voltage, gain-BW product, and open-loop gain.
The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the operational amplifier.
Some of the characteristics that will be investigated include offset voltage, gain-BW product, and open-loop gain.

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Published by: donatello84 on Jun 17, 2010
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11/08/2012

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EEM 328 ELECTRONICS LABORATORYEXPERIMENT 1OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CHARACTERISTICSPURPOSE
The purpose of this lab is to study the characteristics of the operational amplifier.Some of the characteristics that will be investigated include offset voltage, gain-BW product, and open-loop gain.
THEORY
Operational Amplifier
An operational amplifier (or op-amp) is a high gain amplifier which is usually powered using equal but opposite polarity voltage sources. The symbol and thecircuit model can be seen in Figure 1.
Figure 1: Symbol and circuit model for an op-amp
 
As it can be seen, the amplifier takes the difference between the two input signalsand amplifies it by a factor of 
A
od
.
v
o
= A
od
(v
2
– v
1
) = A
od
v
d
 
in
represents the input impedance and R 
out
represents the output impedance of theamplifier. An ideal op-amp amplifier has the following ideal characteristics:- Input Resistance is infinite.- Output resistance is zero- Open-loop voltage gain, A
od
, is infinite- Bandwidth is infinite- v
o
=0 when V
2
= V
1
 Because of these parameters, the op-amp is designed to be used in a feedback looprather than as a stand alone (open-loop) device. This means that in a practical op-
 
amp circuit, there is usually an external path which feeds some of the output of theop-amp back into its input. The parameters of an actual opamp such as the 741differs from the ideal op-amp. Table 1 shows these differences.
Parameter Ideal General Purpose 741 Op-Amp
Voltage Gain, G Infinite 10
5
 Output Impedance, R 
o
0 75
 Input Resistance, R 
in
Infinite 2 M
 Offset Current, I
io
0 20nAOffset Voltage, V
io
0 2mVBandwidth, BW Infinite 1 MHzSlew Rate, SR Infinite .7 V/µs
Table 1: Comparison of the parameters of an ideal op-amp to a real op-amp (741)
The parameters which characterize the op-amp can be described in the followingmanner.
 Input and Output Resistances, R
in
and R
o
 
The input resistance looking into the two input terminals of the op-amp is ideallyinfinite. This means that the device draws no current. For a real 741 op-amp, theinput resistance is about 2M
. For FET op-amps, this resistance can be muchhigher (10
12
 
). The output resistance on the other hand is ideally zero. For the741, it is about 75
. This makes the op-amp ideal for driving low resistance loads.
Open Loop Gain, G
This is the gain of the op-amp if a signal is fed differentially into the input of theamp and no feedback loop is present. This gain is ideally infinite, but in a real op-amp the maximum gain is finite (about 10
5
) . The gain also depends strongly onfrequency. For low frequency inputs it takes on its maximum value, but the gaindecreases rapidly as the input frequency goes up. For a 741, the gain decreases to3dB (2^0.5/2) of its maximum value at 1MHz.
 Input Offset Voltage, V 
io
 
When the difference between the two input signals is zero, ideally the output is zeroalso. However, in a real op-amp, because of manufacturing methods, this is not thecase. For a 741, the output voltage when v
d
= 0 is about 2mV. This can bemeasured by tying both inputs of the amplifier to ground and measuring the outputvoltage. This is the output offset voltage. This voltage is then divided by the open-loop gain of the device to get the input offset voltage.
 
 Input Offset Current, I 
ion
Because the ideal op amp has an infinite input resistance, it draws no current (itlooks like an open circuit). Each input draws a small amount of current. Thedifference between the amount of current drawn into the positive and negativeinput terminals is called the input offset current (I
io
= IB+ – IB-). This can causeerrors in the output voltage.
Gain - Bandwidth Product 
As mentioned before, the gain of the op-amp is frequency dependent. Thefrequency response of the open loop gain is such that the frequency decreases withgain. By looking at the graph in Figure 2, it can be seen that the op-amp displaysthe property that the open-loop gain times the frequency is a constant. This constantis defined as the gainbandwidth product and it is 1 x 106 for the 741 amplifier.
Figure 2: Frequency versus Open Loop Gain for a 741 Op-Amp
Slew Rate
An ideal op-amp has an infinite frequency response. This means that no matter howfast the input changes, the output will be able to keep up. In a real op-amp, this isnot the case. If the input signal changes too fast then the output will not be able tokeep up. This is defined as slewing and it results in distortion of the outputwaveform. Stated more formally,Slew Rate = SR = maximum dv
o
/dtor the maximum rate at which the output can change without distorting. This can bemeasured by applying a high frequency square wave signal. The frequency of thewaveform should be increase until the waveform becomes a triangular wave. Theslope of the triangular waveform is the slew rate. (SR =
V/
T)
PRE-LAB
1) Study the circuit model of operational amplifiers.

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