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Crimes Against Humanity in Western Burma the Situation of the Rohingyas 2010

Crimes Against Humanity in Western Burma the Situation of the Rohingyas 2010

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Published by: cbro50 on Jun 18, 2010
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01/02/2013

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Crimes against Humanity in Western Burma:The Situation of the Rohingyas
Irish Centre for Human Rights2010
 
 
Crimes against Humanity in Western Burma:The Situation of the RohingyasIrish Centre for Human Rights2010
 
 
 
3
Table of Contents
CHAPTER I: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ............................................................................. 8CHAPTER II: INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................... 14
 A. Background of the Report ................................................................................................................ 15
 
1. Context and Framework of the Report ...................................................................................................................... 15
 
2. Methodology and Objectives of the Report .............................................................................................................. 17
 
B. Background on the Rohingyas ....................................................................................................... 20
 
1. Terms Used and Administrative Structures ............................................................................................................ 20
 
2. Brief Historical Background to the Rohingyas ....................................................................................................... 22
CHAPTER III: LEGAL FRAMEWORK............................................................................. 28
 A. Introduction
Why Adopt a Crimes against Humanity Framework? ............................. 29
 
B. The General Requirements of Article 7 of the Rome Statute .............................................. 31
CHAPTER IV: ENSLAVEMENT - FORCED LABOUR .................................................. 36
 A. Factual Findings .................................................................................................................................. 37
 
1. The Exaction of Forced Labour in Burma ................................................................................................................. 37
 
2. The Exaction of Forced Labour in North Arakan State ....................................................................................... 40
 
2.1 The Nature of the Labour ........................................................................................................................................ 41
 
2.2 Forcible Nature of the Work and Treatment of Individuals..................................................................... 48
 
B. The Applicable Law: Forced Labour as an International Crime Bearing IndividualCriminal Responsibility ......................................................................................................................... 51
 
1. Forced Labour as an International Crime Bearing Individual Criminal Responsibility ....................... 51
 
2. Forced Labour as Enslavement: Jurisprudence in Brief ..................................................................................... 56
 
C. Preliminary Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 59
CHAPTER V: RAPE AND SEXUAL VIOLENCE ............................................................. 61
 A. Factual Findings .................................................................................................................................. 62
 
1. Rape and Sexual Violence in Burma ............................................................................................................................ 62
 
1.1 Reports of Rape and Sexual Violence against Women and Girls ............................................................ 62
 
1.2 Access to Justice and Responses to Cases of Rape and Sexual Violence ............................................. 67
 
2. Rape and Sexual Violence in North Arakan State .................................................................................................. 69
 
2.1 Root Causes of Rape and Sexual Violence against Rohingya Girls and Women .............................. 70
 
2.2 Reports of Rape and Sexual Violence against Rohingya Girls and Women ....................................... 73
 
B. Prohibition of Rape and Sexual Violence under International Criminal Law and its Application to the Rohingyas in North Arakan State .................................................................. 77
 
1. Development of the Legal Parameters of Rape and Sexual Violence by the ad hoc Tribunals ......... 77
 
2. Prohibition under the Rome Statute and its Application to the Situation of the Rohingyas .............. 78
 
C. Preliminary Conclusions .................................................................................................................. 80

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