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Psychology Lecture 3

Psychology Lecture 3

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Published by shamim3261
Psychology lecture
Psychology lecture

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Published by: shamim3261 on Jun 12, 2008
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06/14/2009

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Lecture #3Chapter 2 Neuroscience and Behavior -Basic premise: everything psychological is simultaneously biological-Behavior, thought, mood, etc... is the product of activity among billions and billions of interconnected cells called neurons. ___________myelin sheathterminal branches of axon __________| |||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||/-------------< __________|cell body |_____axon _______________________-----------------< __________|___________|||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||\__________ dendrites->->neural impulses->->-How do neurons communicate?-Each neuron contains:-a cell body-two types of branching fibers-dendrites: receive messages from other cells and pass it tothe cell body-short bushes of fiber -axon: passes neural message (information) from the cell body and passes it to the other neurons, muscles or glands-can be short or long (e.g. short in brain, long in leg)-extensions of the neuron-usually end in terminal branch-many axons are covered in a fatty substance, calledmyelin (the myelin sheath)-increases speed of neural message traveling alongthe axon (neural conduction)-as you get older, you get more and more myelin-cells with no myelin = gray matter, cells withmyelin = white matter -Multiple Sclerosis - decay of the myelin - causeslots of problems: loss of motor and mentalabilitiesHow do neurons work?- the neuron fires a brief electrical impulse when stimulated by heat, light, sound, pressure, chemicals, etc. (e.g. you put your finger near a flame)-the impulse is called an action potential-Occurs in one part of the neuron, then travels the length of the neuron (down theaxon) to the next cell
 
-the brain is bathed in salt water - inside and outside each cell are ions (charged particles)+ + + sodium and chloride + + + (outside axon)- - - - potassium- - - - - - - (inside axon)+ + + sodium and chloride + + + (outside axon)-when the cell is at rest, the inside o f the cell is more negatively charged than theoutside, because the positively charged sodium ions are kept outside the cell-the cell becomes less negative when stimulated, because channels in the cellopen up allowing positive sodium ions outside to flow inside -> this causes thecell to depolarize -> if it depolarizes enough, it triggers an action potential-e.g.+ + + + + + + + + - - - - + + + + + +- - - - - - - - - - - - - -> + + + + + - - - - - - -+ + + + + + + + + + - - - - - - - + + + + +-once a cell depolarizes in one part, it triggers the next part to open its sodiumchannels to depolarize that part - this carries the action potential down the lengthof the cell-an action potential in one part of the cell triggers succeeding action potentials inadjacent parts of the cell, which is how the neural message is carried along thecell-after the action potential: pumps move the sodium outside and the potassiuminside so the cell is polarized once again-How does a message communicate with the next cell?-the axon terminals of the sending cell are filled with round sacks (vesicles) whichcontain a chemical (neurotransmitter)-an action potential causes the vesicles to move down the terminal fibers andrelease the neurotransmitter -the axon terminals of the sending cell almost but not quite touch the surface of the receiving cell - the gap is called a synapse-the neurotransmitter travels across the synapse into the receptors in the dendritesof the next cellThe axon terminals of one cell almost, but not quite, tough the surface of another cell -the gap is called the
synapse
- when an action potential reaches the axon terminal, theeven causes
vesicles
, containing
neurotransmitters
, to release the neurotransmitter,which flows out of the sending neuron, across the synapse to the
receptor sites
on thereceiving neuron - that process can trigger an action potential in the receiving neurons-different neurotransmitters fit into particular receptors “like a key in a lock”-how do they know what path to take?-paths are laid down by genetics
 
-memory/experience can also lay down neural paths-There are at least seventy -five types of neurotransmitters-e.g. serotonin and dopamine-both are related to mood disorders-both are in the limbic system-both have their own neurons that they like to stimulate-neurotransmitters have receptor sites that they fit into like a key in a lock -the two effects a neurotransmitter can have:1.) Excitatory - makes an action potential more likely to happen - allowssodium to flow into the cell e.g. acetylcholine (ACh) is released atmuscle junctures and activates the movements of muscles2.) Inhibitory - makes an action potential less likely to happen-hyperpolarizes the cell, e.g. GABA makes cells stop firing toinhibit activityThe all or none principle-any given cell can receive both excitory and inhibitory neurotransmitters-to fire, a receiving cell must receive more excitatory than inhibitoryneurotransmitters and they must exceed the threshold- if it does not exceed the threshold the cell will not fire-strong excitation does not case stronger action potentials-like a gun: the trigger must be pulled past a certain point in order for it to fire,and it will not fire differently depending on how the trigger is pulled-it explains a lot of our behavior when we take chemicals that affectneurotransmittersDrugs and Poisons-Poisons that affect ACh1)Curare - poison used in hunting by natives - paralyses prey-is chemically similar to ACh - it fits into the ACh receptor sites but willnot cause the sodium channels to open - blocks ACh from working-ACh
antagonist
- it blocks the action of ACh2)Botulin (botulinum toxin)-comes from improperly canned food-blocks release of ACh from the axon terminal-causes paralysis, loss of feeling, and sometimes death (the heart and lungsare paralyzed)-used in bo-tox cosmetic treatments - smoothes out wrinkles by paralyzingthe face-can also relieve some diseases3)Venom of the Black Widow spider -causes convulsions-causes ACh to flood across the axon terminal - mass activation of muscles-you can convulse to violently that you die

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