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psycholgy recitation_5

psycholgy recitation_5

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Recitation Sections Learning Objectives
Recitation Section #5 (Genetic Influences and Statistics) \u2013 March 8-9th
Measures of Central Tendency and Measures of Variation.
Terms: Mode, Median, Mean, Median, Range and Standard Deviation
Here are scores of fifteen students on a 10 point quiz.
10 8 7 6 3 4 7 10 6 5 8 7 9 7 6
a-Mode: the most frequently occurring score in a distribution.
For example: 3 5 5 6 6 67 7 7 7 8 9 9 10 10
The number that appears the most here is 7.
b-Median: the middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are
below it.
Answer: 3 5 5 6 6 677 7 7 8 9 9 10 10

Note: To obtain the right answer the scores MUST be in numerical order.
With an odd number of scores (i.e.15 scores) the median is simply the
middle number after you have arranged the scores in numerical order.
With an even number of scores add the two middle numbers and divide by
two. For the median the scores must be in numerical order. Failure to do so will result in
a wrong answer.

c-Mean: the arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the scores and then
dividing by the number of scores.
Answer:
total / number of scores
105/15 = 7
d-Range: the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Answer: highest \u2013 lowest

10 \u2013 3 = 7
Note: the range is not a good measure of variation. It does not say anything about the
other scores in the distribution. For the numbers 2, 4, 5, 4, 3, 10 the range is 8. For the
numbers 2, 8, 7, 8, 9, 10 the range is also 8. For the first set the mode, median and mean
are 3, 4 and 4.67, respectively. Meanwhile, for the second set the mode, median and
mean are 8, 8, and 7.34, respectively.

e- Standard Deviation: a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean
score.
Score
Deviation for Mean
Squared Deviation
3
-4
16
5
-2
4
5
-2
4
6
-1
1
6
-1
1
6
-1
1
7
0
0
7
0
0
7
0
0
7
0
0
8
1
1
9
2
4
9
2
4
10
3
9
10
3
9
\u2211 105
54
Mean = 105 \u00f7 15 = 7
S =\u221asum of (deviations)2/number of scores =\u221a54 /15 = 1.897
At standard deviation of 1.897 means that on average the scores the scores are 1.897
points away from the mean.
Make sure that you understand the terms and know how to do the calculations.
Genetic Influences on Behavior
Introduction

One of the great longstanding debates in psychology is whether our genes or our environment are more
important in determining our psychological makeup. This lab will consider the nature-nurture debate. One way
to study this issue is to compare pairs of identical twins who have been separated at birth and reared in different
households. The twins share the exact same genes, but are exposed to distinct environments. When the twins
grow up, we can measure how similar they are in their likes and dislikes to determine how great an influence
their genes have had on their behavior.

Consider the case of identical twins Jerry Levey and Mark Newman (pictured in your text). Separated as
infants, they grew up to share characteristics ranging from the firefighting avocation to taste in beer.
Neither knew of the other\u2019s existence until a shared acquaintance brought them together. Upon meeting
for the first time each saw his own reflection. They had grown the same mustache and sideburns, and
each wore the same glasses. As the brothers talked, they discovered they had more than looks in common.
Levey went to college and graduated with a degree in forestry. Newman planned to go to college to study
the same subject but opted to work for the city trimming trees. Both worked for a time in supermarkets.
Levey had a job installing sprinkler systems. Until recently, Newman had a job installing fire alarms.
Both men are bachelors attracted to similar women\u2014\u201ctall, slender, long hair.\u201d In addition to being
volunteer firemen, they both share favorite pastimes of hunting, fishing, going to the beach, watching old
John Wayne movies and pro wrestling, and eating Chinese food in the wee hours after a night on the
town. Both were raised in the Jewish faith but neither is particularly religious. Both men drink only
Budweiser beer, holding the can with one pinkie curled underneath and crushing the can when it\u2019s empty.
In becoming acquainted, observes Jerry, \u201cwe kept making the same remarks at the same time and using
the same gestures. It was spooky . . . He is he and I am I, and we are one.\u201d

Activity #1: Testing for Coincidental Similarities

Obviously, the twins in this case study share some amazing similarities. One criticism of these studies,
however, is that almost any two strangers are likely to share a slew of coincidental similarities. To test this idea,
pair up now with someone in the class that you don\u2019t know well and complete the questionnaire on the next
page together. For each item, decide whether you and your teammate are alike or different. You have 5 minutes
to finish the questionnaire. When you are done, add up the number of similarities.

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