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gps homin robo

gps homin robo

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Published by vinay999

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Published by: vinay999 on Jun 12, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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06/14/2009

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Table of Contents
Abstract ................................................................................................................................2Objective ..............................................................................................................................2Design ..................................................................................................................................2Compass ...........................................................................................................................2Preliminary Design ......................................................................................................2Problems Encountered .................................................................................................3Final Design .................................................................................................................3Drive System ....................................................................................................................4Preliminary Design ......................................................................................................4Problems Encountered .................................................................................................5Final Design .................................................................................................................7Vehicle Speed Reduction .................................................................................................9Preliminary Design ......................................................................................................9Problems Encountered .................................................................................................9Final Design ...............................................................................................................10Collision Avoidance .......................................................................................................11Preliminary Design ....................................................................................................11Problems Encountered ...............................................................................................11Final Design ...............................................................................................................11GPS System ...................................................................................................................13Preliminary Design ....................................................................................................13Problems Encountered ...............................................................................................15Final Design ...............................................................................................................17Alternative Designs ............................................................................................................17LCD / Keypad User Interface Module ...........................................................................17Preliminary Design ....................................................................................................17Problems Encountered ...............................................................................................19Final Design ...............................................................................................................19Budget/Parts .......................................................................................................................20Timelines ............................................................................................................................21Conclusion .........................................................................................................................23Appendix A ........................................................................................................................24
 
Abstract
Every possible location on the Earth’s surface has been mapped by coordinates,which makes it possible to express any location accurately. Satellites broadcast to theselocations so that any receiver may realize its location. This is the theory behind theGlobal Positioning System (GPS). The purpose of this project is to build a robot that iscapable of navigating itself by taking full advantage of this technology.
Objective
In order to fulfill the objectives of this project, certain requirements must beoutlined. These parameters will shape the way this project is carried out, from designdecisions to economic constraints. The most crucial objective will allow an operatingvehicle to navigate from one point to another using an onboard GPS navigation system.The vehicle should not get stuck or turn over easily. The destination and any neededinitializing inputs should be the only data input into the system. The vehicle should beable to traverse multiple types of terrains and navigate the entire course (point A to pointB) that has been input by the operator. Simple obstacles in the vehicle's path should benavigable. The overall weight of the vehicle, with all components applied, should weighless than 10kg (22 lbs.). The overall cost of the project, which includes testing and other incidental costs, should not cost more than one thousand dollars.
Design
Compass
Preliminary Design
Since the Garmin GPS-LVS16 only provides a calculated compass heading outputwhen the unit is moving, a stand-alone compass is needed in order to determine thedirection that the vehicle is facing. The initial design involved a PNI V2Xe 2-axis 360degree resolution digital compass. This compass required a 3VDC input which wouldhave been easily pulled from the Zilog microcontroller board. The means by which itoutput data to communicate with microcontrollers is SPI communication protocol.
 
Problems Encountered 
Due to the lack of turning precision of our vehicle, a digital compass with great precision was not necessary. The PNI V2Xe’s output using SPI communication protocolwas also determined to involve too much work with software.
Final Design
We chose to use the Dinsmore 1490 digital compass with 45 degree resolution (8-directional). The 8-directional compass provided enough resolution to indicate to thesoftware which direction the vehicle was traveling to assist in navigation. This compassoutputs to four general purpose I/O pins of our microcontroller. These bits determine thedirectional orientation of the compass. This was much easier to implement than the PNIV2Xe digital compass. Figure 2 shows the schematic for interfacing the Dinsmore 1490digital compass to the Zilog Z8 Encore! microcontroller. The following Figure 1 showsthe digital compass mounted to the top of the vehicle without the white plastic enclosure.
Figure 1: Dinsmore 1490 Digital Compass mounted on top of vehicle.

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