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Ezhuthacchan_Observations on Matrubhumi Article

Ezhuthacchan_Observations on Matrubhumi Article

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Published by: hari18 on Jun 19, 2010
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08/01/2010

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1
Fgp-¯-ѳ þ ]pXnb kwhmZ km[yX-IÄ
ƒ
 
amXr-`qan hmcn-Ibn I− {io. hn.-kn. {ioPsâ Fgp-¯-Ñs\¸-än-bpÅ hn¹-hmßI Nn´IÄ hfsc {it²-bamWv. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ cN-\IfpsS kmaq-lnI {]kàn Hcp ]pXnb ho£ WtIm-Wn-eqsS tNmZyw sN¿s¸-Sp-¶p-sh¶v ]d-bmw. hmkvtIm Un KmabpsS Ime¯n\v A©v ]Xn-äm−p-IÄ¡ptijw FgpX-s¸« Isamsb³knsâ (
Luís Vaz de Camões
) Kmam A]-Zm\Im-hy-hp-ambpw (
Os Lusiades
1572
), t]mÀ¯pKokv A[n-\n-thi ]Ým¯-e¯n ssiJv ssk\p-±o³ hnizmkn-IÄ¡msbgp-Xnb kaImeo\Ncn{Xhni-Ie\hpw ]Ým¯-e¯n \maam{X-ambn D² cn¨p \nÀ¯nbmWv Fgp¯-Ñsâ cN-\I-fpsS kmaq-lnI {]kàn hnaÀi-\mß-Iambn A]-{KYn- ¡-s¸-Sp-¶Xv. km[mcW hmb\¡m-c³ tI«n-«n-Ãm¯ t]cpIfmWv eqbnkv hmkv Un Itam sb³kpw At±l-¯nsâ t]mÀ¯p-Kokv tZiobImhy-amb eqkn-bmUv F¶ IrXn-bpw. ssk\p- ±o\n-s\-¸-änbpw Cu teJIs\t¸mse-bpÅ \nc-h[n-bmfp-IÄ Hcp ]s£, BZyambn Adn-bp ¶Xv {ioPsâ D²-c-W¯n-eq-sSbmbncn¡mw. F¶mÂ, hnaÀi-\mß-Iamb Hcp XmcXay AYhm Bt]-£n-Iamb ]T-\¯n\v aXn-bmb ]Ým¯ew eqkn-bmUn-sâbpw ssk\p-±o³Ir-Xn-bp-sSbpw \maam{X D²-cWw sIm−v e`yamIp-¶pthm? F¶ tNmZyw {]YaZrjvSym Xs¶ DÛ-hn-¡p-¶p. DZml-c-W¯n-\v, eqkn-bmUv, {ioP³ kqNn-¸n-¡p-¶Xp t]mse Hcp t]mcmfn-bm Fgp-Xs¸« bp²-Imhy-am-Wv. Cu t]mcmfnbpw Fgp-¯-Ñ\pw X½n tZiobhpw Imen-Ihpw hyàn-Xz-]-c-hp amb F{X-am{Xw kmay-§Ä AYhm sshPmXy-§fp−v? AhcpsS cN-\IÄ¡v t{]c-Iamb kml-N-cy-§Ä X½n DÅ-S-¡-¯nsâ Xmc-Xayw bpàn-k-l-am¡p¶ F{Xam{Xw kmZr-iy ap−v?{ioP³ teJ-\¯n\v Bcw`w Ipdn¨p sIm−p \ÂIp¶ kaImeo\X-bpsSbpw kam\Xbp-sSbpw ]cmaÀiw hkvXp-\njvTasöp am{X-a-Ã, sXän-²mc-WmP\Iw IqSn-bmWv.
AhÀ aq¶p-t]cpw GXm−v Htc Imew Pohn-¨p. Htc Ncn{X-kw-`-h§Ä¡v km£nIfmbn. AXn- semcmÄ Hcp t]mÀ¯p-Kokp-Imc³, ae-_mdn sIm¨n-cmPmhn\p th−n bp²w sNbvXn-«p−v. c−pt]À ae_mdp-ImÀ Xs¶...
 Fgp¯-Ñ\pw Itamsb³kpw GXm−v HtcImew Pohn-¨p. Htc Ncn{X-kw-`-h§Ä¡v km£n-I fmbn þ F¶ [mcW ]IÀ¶v XmcX-aymßIhnaÀi\¯n\v ]Wn-bp¶ ASn-¯d Xosc Ahm kvX-hn-Ihpw Aimkv{Xobhp-am-Wv. Fgp-¯-Ñsâ Imew {ioP³ \ÂIp-¶Xv
1494 - 1574
F¶pwItamsb³kn-sâXv
1524 - 1580
F¶pamIp-¶p. enkv_-Wnse t]mÀ¯p-Kokp ]S-bmfn-bmb Ihnbpw ae_mdnse kwkvIr-X-]-WvUn-X\pw kn²-Ihn-bpamb Fgp-¯-Ñ\pw X½n ]Ým¯-e- `q-an-IfpsS kmaq-ln-I-hpw kmwkvImcn-Ihp-w kmln-Xy-]-chpamb F´p-kmay-amWv k¦Â]n-¡p- hm³ Ign-bpI? eq¯n-b³ kmln-Xy-¯nse PUX H¶psIm−p am{Xw hmgv¯-s¸-Sp-hm³ kml- Ncyw D−mb eqknbmUn-s\bpw kmln-Xy-k-¼p-jvS-amb `mc-X-¯nÂ, kwkvIrX-þX-angv km lnXo]mc-¼cy¯nemhnÀ`-hn¨ Fgp¯-ѳ IrXn-Isfbpw D]-cn-¹-hambn DÅS¡¯nsâ kz`m hw, Imen-Ihpw kmaq-ln-Ihp-amb {]kàn F¶o \neIfn NÀ¨ sN¿pI F{Xam{Xw Bim ky-amWv?]S-bmfn-bmb Itamsb³kv {]Xn-\n-[oI-cn-¡p-¶ kmaq-ln-Iþ-{]-Xn-_-²X, Nn´m]-c-amb Hu¶Xyw, Ihn-bpsS at\mL-S\, hnÚm\-\n-ehmcw Chsbms¡ Adn-bp-hm³ eqkn-bmUn- te¡v Hsc-¯n-t\m«w klmbIamIpsa-¶n-cn-s¡, eqkn-bmUv Xpd¡msX Xs¶ Fgp¯-Ñsâ
ƒ
 
hn.-kn. {ioP³, amXr-`qan hmcn-I, amÀ¨v
28
þ
4
G{]nÂ
2010
, ]pkvXIw
88
, e¡w
3
: ]pdw
34-39
.
 
2
IrXn-Isf eqkn-bmUnsâ ]Ým¯-e¯n hnaÀin-¡pI F{X-am{Xw bpànk-l-amWv?
t]mÀ¯p-Kokp t]mcmfn bp²-Imhy-sa-gpXnsb¶ncns¡ kao]-Im-e¯p thsd-hn-sStbm Pohn¨  Fgp-¯Ñs\-´p-sIm−v t]mÀ¯p-Kokv AXn{Ia-§Äs¡Xnsc Bt{Im-in¨nÃ? 
F¶ tNmZyw{ioP³ DbÀ¯p¶p. t]mÀ¯p-Kokv P\m`n-em-j-§sf, am\p-jnI \·sb, kmaq-lnI \·sb F{X-am{Xw Itamsb³knsâ IrXn-bmb eqkn-bmUv DbÀ¯n-¡m«nsb¶v hmb-\¡msc [cn-¸n- ¡msX-bmWv {ioP³ Fgp-¯-ѳ IrXn-Ifn IcSp X¸p¶Xv. eqkn-bmUnsâ ]cn-Xm]-Ic-amb _u²nI A´x-k¯, Bi-b]-c-amb ]m¸-c¯w aebmfn¡dn-bnà F¶ kml-N-cys¯ Zpcp-]- tbmKw sNbvXv Fgp-¯-Ñs\ Xmd-Sn-¡p-Ibtà e£yw F¶v kwibn-t¡-−n-bn-cn-¡p-¶p. eqkn-bmUnsâ XpS¡w Xs¶ C¯-cp-W¯n hfsc {it²-bmWv. Bbp-[§-tf´nb epkn-¯m\n-b¡-c-bnse hoc-·mÀ ]Sn-ªmdp \n¶pw Xm{a]ÀWn-¡¸pdwhsc IS Xm−nkml-kn-Iambn bp²-§foeqsS Ing¡v km{am-Py-samcp¡n hoc-·mc-hÀ Pbn¨ `qan-bmsI {InkvXp-aXw \S-¸m¡n Gjybnepw B{^n-¡-bnepw ...Rm\hcpsS hoc-KmY sNmÃs«!Cuhn-[amb t]mÀ¯p-Kokv hoc-KmYbpsS IÀ¯mhn-s\bmWv Fgp-¯-¨-\p-ambn Xmc-Xay-s¸-Sp- ¯p-¶Xv. bqWn-th-gvknän hnZym`ymk-¯n-\p-ti-jw, t]mÀ¯pKokv cmPmhnsâ B{in-X-\m-bn-  hÀ¯n-¡p-Ibpw {XntImW{]-Wb¯n-eqsS cmPmhn\v Aln-X-\mbn¯oÀ¶v {_koen-te¡v \mSpIS-¯-s¸SpIbpw sNbvXp. {_kn-ense Xsâ {]hmk-Im-e¯v hmkvtIm Un KmabpsS bq²-bm{X tI{µ-_nµphm¡n eqkn-bmUnsâ cN\ Bcw-`n¡p-Ibpw Imäpw tImfpw \ndª Xsâ ]n¡me t]mcmfn-Pohn-X-Ime¯v C´y, ssN\ XpS§nb tZi-§fnse hnh-c-§Ä tNÀ¯v ]qÀ¯nbm¡p-Ibpw sNbvXp.
1572
 {]kn²oIcn¨ Imhy-¯n\v {]kn-²ntbm {]Nmctam In«m¯n-\m cmPys¯ ]gn¨p sIm−v
(“I have loved my country. I have returned not only to die onher bosom, but to die with her.”)
AKXn-bmbn Poh³ shSn-ªp. C´y-bn-te¡v Ab¡p-t¼mÄ Itam- sb³kv ]d-ªXv þ \µn-sI« cmPy-ta, Fsâ AØn-IÄ \n\-¡p-Å-
×
þ F¶mIp-¶p. {ioP³Fgp¯-Ñ-s\m¸w Ccp-¯p¶ alm\mb t]mÀ¯p-Kokv IhnbpsS cq]-`mh§fn-XmWv. {ioPsâ Xmc-X-ay-¯n\v hnj-bo`-hn-¡p¶ c−maXp hyàn ssk\p±o³ c−ma\mWv. ssk\p ±o³ H¶masâ ]n³Km-an-bmbn am¸n-famtcmSv t]mÀ¯p-Kokp-Imsc FXnÀ¡p-hm³
1531
 P\n¨At±l-¯nsâ ]u{X³ Blzm\w sNbvXp. Cu tZim`n-am\n {InkvXp hÀjw
1583
\v ap¼mbncNn¨ am¸n-fam-cpsS Xt±iobamb Ncn-{X-amWv Xplv^-¯p apPmln-±o³. A¡me¯v \n\-\n¶ kmaq-ln-Iþ-cmjv{Sob kml-N-cy-§fpsS t{]c-Wbpw am¸n-fam-cpsS tZim`n-am\hpw krjvSn¨ Hcp Ncn-{X-tcJsb¶v hnti-jn-¸n-¡mhp¶ IrXnsb Fgp-¯-Ñsâ IrXn-I-fp-ambn X«n¨p t\m¡p- Xnsâ am\ZWvUw {ioPsâ Fgp-¯n hyà-aÃ. Fgp¯-Ñ-s\¸änbpÅ hfsc A]-Iz-amb Hcp Kthj-Ws¯bpw ho£-W§sfbpw Aimkv{Xobamb coXn-bn XoÀ¯pw AtbmKy-amb Xmc-X-ay¯m s]mSn¸pw sXm§epw tNÀ¯v AhX-cn-¸n-¨n-cn-¡p¶p þ F¶v ]d-tb−n hcp-¶Xn tJZ-ap-−v. .
]T-\-¯nse ckI-c-amb ]cm-aÀi§Ä
1.
 
Chcn BZys¯ c−pt]cpw (Itamsb³kpw ssk\p-±o³þ-c-−ma\pw) X§Ä Pohn¨ Ime tZ-i-§tfmSv FÃm AÀ°-¯nepw \oXn ]peÀ¯n-sb¶p ]dbmw.
×
He was recalled to court, but jealousies soon drove him thence to India, whither he sailed in 1553, exclaiming,“Ungrateful country, thou shall not possess my bones.”
 
3
Itamsb³kpw ssk\p-±o\pw Ime-tZ-i-§-tfmSv Im«nb \oXn 
DbÀ¯n-¡m«n-bmWv Fgp-¯-Ñ\p t\tc hnaÀi-\w.
Xm³ P\n¨ sh«-¯p-\m«n\p sXm«Sp¯v \S-¡p¶ \c-l-Xy-Ifn-tem, bp²-§fn-tem, \Kc-Z-l-\- §fntem At±lw Hcp XmÂ]cyhpw Im«n-bn-Ã. AX-sæn GsX-¦nepw hn[¯n XmXv]cyw Im«n-bXn\p Xsâ cN-\Ifn kqN-\I-fn-Ã. ]Xn-\mdmw iXI¯nsâ BZym]mZs¯ Cf¡n adn¨ sshtZ-in-Ibp-²-§Ä ae_mdn shSnbpw ]pIbpw ]c-¯p-t¼mÄ AsXm¶pw tIÄ¡m³ Iq«m¡msX
]c!]c!
 
]c!]ca ]mln amw
F¶v P]n-¡p-Ibm-bn-cp¶p B alm]p-cp-
.am\y-hpw bpàn-k-lhpamb Hcp hnaÀi-\amtWm CsX¶v hmb-\¡mÀ Nn´n-¡-Ww. Itam sb³kv Xsâ hcn-Ifn-eqsS BtLmjn-¡p¶ bp²-bm{X-IÄ¡v ASn-Øm\w {InkvXpaX-{]-Nm cWw kw_Ôn¨v kvs]bn\pw t]mÀ«pKepw X½n-epÅ
1494
se DS-¼Snbpw AX-\p-k-cn¨v t]mÀ«pKen\v e`y-amb C´ymþ-an-j-\dn ZuXy-hp-amWv.
1
ASn-¡p-dn-¸mbn \ÂInbncn¡p¶ BwK teb D²-cWnbn \n¶pw Isamsb³sk¶ ]d-¦n-¸-S-bmfn-bpsS kaq-lw, am\hn-IX, apX-emb LS-I§fpw GXphn[w Xsâ cmPmhnsâ A`n-emj-§tfmSv \oXn-]p-eÀ¯p-hm³ _²-s¸-«n- cn¡mw F¶Xpw \ap¡v Duln-¡mw. am\-hn-Iaq-ey-§sfÃmw Xs¶ A{]-k-à-amb kzmÀ°-X bpsS ]S¸p-d-¸mSn\v kvXpXnKoXw ]mSnb Itamsb³kns\ hmgv¯n-s¡m−mWv {ioPsâ Fgp-¯-Ñ\p t\sc-bpÅ ]S-¸p-d-¸msS¶v \ap¡p AÂ]w Nn´n-¨m t_m²y-s¸-Smw. Xsâ c−mw hchn hmkvtIm Un Kmam tImgn-t¡mSv Xoc¯v lmPn-IfpsS sa¡-bn \n¶pwaS-¡-bm-{X-bn-embn-cp¶ I¸Â bm{X-¡mtcmsSm¸w Np«pIcn-¨-Xmbn tcJs¸-Sp¯n ImWp-¶p. B{^n-¡³ Xoc¯pw ISn-ªmWn-Ãm¯ {IqcX I¨-hS-¯n\pw aX-{]-Nmc-W¯n-\p-ambn Kmam Agn-¨p-hn«p. A§s\-bpÅ Hcp ss]imNnIs\bpw arKob-amb A[n-\n-thi-{i-a§-sfbpw hmgv¯n Imhy-sa-gp-Xp-¶XmtWm tZi-Ime§-tfmSv Hcp Ihn-¡p-−mbn-cn-t¡− {]Xn_-²X?
F¶ kwibw ChnsS Dbcp-¶p. {ioP³ A[n-t£-]n-¡p¶
Fgp-¯-Ñsâ au\w
Ihn-IfpsSbpw aäv kÀ¤[\·mcp-sSbpw \ncp-¯-c-hmZ-]-c-amb Poh\-¯nsâ Afhp-tImem-sW-¦nÂ, {_n«ojn-´y-bpsS ]Ým¯-e¯n \mw ImWp¶ {io. cho{µ-\mY SmtKmdn-s\-bpw, {io\mcmb WKp-cp-hn-s\bpw {iocmaIr-jvW]-c-a-lw-k-scbpw F§s\bmWv \mw hnebn-cp-t¯-−Xv? {ioc-ho{µ-\m-YSmtKmdnsâ GsXms¡ IrXnIfnemWv {_n«ojp-Imsc FXncn-Sp-hm\pÅ Blzm\w \mw ImWp-¶Xv? {iovv\mcmbWKp-cp-hnsâ GsXms¡ IrXn-IfnemWv {_n«o-jp- Imsctbm AhcpsS AXn-{Ia-§sftbm A]-e]n¨p ImWp-¶Xv? {io. Ipamc-\m-imsâ GXv Ihn X-bn-emWv {_n«ojv `c-Ws¯ A]-e-]n¨p ImWp-¶Xv? `mc-X`mKy-hn-[mXmsh¶v {_n«ojvN-{IhÀ¯nsb Ccp]Xmw \qäm−n hnti-jn-¸n¨ tZiobI-hn bpÅ kzX{´`mcX-¯n-emWv t]mÀ¨p-Kok-Xn-{Ia§-tfmSv au\w ]men¨p F¶ Btcm]Ww Fgp¯-Ñ\v t\tc DbÀ¯-s¸-Sp-¶Xv.
2.
 
Fgp¯-ѳ Pohn-¨n-cp¶ Ime¯v ae_m-dn ]eXpw \S¶n-cp¶p F¶p Nn´n-¡m³ B hmIyw aXn
1
 
Portugal and Spain were eager to have direct trade in Pepper and spices with Malabar... Both the countries werevying each other in their eagerness to spread Christianity in the new regions. They apprised the Pope of thepotentialities of missionary work in those countries and sought permission and blessings of the Holy See. Spainand Portugal agreed in 1494 to divide the unexplored parts of the world between them and to spread Christianity inthose areas. It was subsequently approved by the Pope and known as ‘Padroado’. Accordingly the right, controland patronage over the missionary work in India and the East were assigned to the king of Portugal... king of Portugal Emmanuel, made arrangements to send an expedition to Malabar. The King appointed Captain Vasco daGama as leader of a team of four ships and deputed to Malabar with assignments; to find out a sea-route toMalabar; to organise pepper and spices trade with Malabar and to spread Christianity in Malabar and en-route.

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