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Cargo Handling Safety

Cargo Handling Safety

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a compilation of several information on the subject matter.. no copyright infringement.. just wanna share and help.. :D credits to the original sources..
a compilation of several information on the subject matter.. no copyright infringement.. just wanna share and help.. :D credits to the original sources..

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Published by: Frenzie Mae Vasquez Rivera on Jun 19, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Cargo Handling Safety
1. Why cargo gear should be inspected visually before the start of cargo operation?
  All cargo handling gears should be inspected before the cargo operation is commenced to ensurethat all gears are in good working condition in order to prevent any accident and/or damage tocargo, ship, and/or injuries and loss of human lives.
2. Why SWL of equipment should never be exceeded?
 Safe Working Load (SWL) is the allowable load of block, wires, ropes, derrick booms, crane jibs,hooks and lifting beams. Therefore, the SWL of the equipment should not be exceeded, otherwise,the safety of cargoes and the crew will be jeopardized.
3. Explain the importance of frequently checking cargo gears during cargo operation.
 During cargo operation process, routine inspections on all cargo gears must be conducted for anysign of wear and tear. If found defective, cargo operations are immediately stopped and correctiveactions and preventive maintenance must be carried out.
4. Why a mechanically or hydraulically operated hatch should be close or opened byships crew under the supervision of a responsible office?
 When operating hydraulic hatch, opening or closing it should be done with the presence of aresponsible officer for safety purposes.
Care of Cargo During the Voyage
1. Why lashing of cargoes shall be checked and tightened everyday?
 Cargo lashings should be checked and tightened everyday for security and safety purposes. Whenthe ship is put to sea, it is subject to external forces, which result in six modes of motion. Cargostowed on deck is also exposed to the forces of wind and of seas breaking on deck. If the cargo isinsufficiently secured, it may move freely and be damaged or cause damage to other cargo or to theships structure and fittings due to the motion of the ship at sea. Cargo stowed on deck withinsufficient lashings may be lost at sea in adverse weather. It may be washed overboard, causingloss to its owner, possibly damage to the marine environment, and hazard to people when it washesup on a beach.
2. Explain the proper action to take to prevent condensation.
 Condensation can occur when the ship passes from cold to warmer climates. Warmer outside air, bythe process of ventilation, will in all probability, deposit its moisture on the cooler cargo within theship. If the temperature of the cargo is below the dew point of the external atmosphere and air isadmitted to the holds, condensation on the cargo will surely result. As to prevent this to happen,proper ventilation is required.
3. How proper ventilation shall be exercised when sailing from cold to hot areas and viceversa?
 Under such conditions, it would be better to keep the ventilators closed. It should be the goal of every chief officer to arrange the ventilation of the holds in such a way that the original temperatureof loading is changed slowly as the ship passes into other climates. With this, there is little or nodifference between the temperatures inside the holds and that of the outside air, thus, preventingcondensation on the ships cargoes.When the dew point of the outside air is lower than or equal to the dew point of the air in the hold,ventilate. Otherwise, when the dew point of the outside air is greater than the dew point of the airin the hold, do not ventilate with outside air.
4. Explain which checks shall be carried out when carrying frozen or refrigeratedcargoes.
Hold preparations
 Cargo space or cargo holds must be thoroughly cleaned, otherwise, heavymolds will develop on commodities despite optimum conditions of temperature, humidity, and airmotion. Fungus growth and rotting may occur on fruits and vegetables infected by imperfectlycleaned spaces.
Pre-cooling and Proper Dunnaging
 Pre-cooling of cargo spaces is universal while pre-coolingof the cargoes is not. Holds and lockers are then cooled to carriage temperature. The cargo holdshould be inspected ashore by the ships officer before loading to see that it is in good condition andhas been properly pre-cooled where it is required. A sample of the cargo should be thoroughlyinspected for signs of damages. A record of inspection and temperatures should be kept and similarrandom inspections of the cargo should be made during the loading. Any damaged products verifiedduring loading should be rejected or loaded separately.
Use of Brine in Compartment Drains
 Brine trapped in compartment drain line must be heatedespecially when loading frozen products in order for the excess water to run freely into the bilges.
Recording Hold Temperature
  The purpose of recording the hold temperature is the basis of decision made when to regulate the temperature inside the hold through ventilation and it isimportant that the temperature is monitored constantly during the voyage.
Operation of cooling fans
 Delivery air temperature must be brought down to the minimumspecification for the particular cargo within the shortest possible time. The length of reduction periodis to be calculated for each deck and the average of these values applies as the reduction period.Normal reduction period is 36 hours.
 It is to be maintained throughout the voyage unless such action affects the control of delivery air temperature. When the dew point of the outside air is lower than or equal to the dewpoint of the air in the hold, ventilate. Otherwise, when the dew point of the outside air is greaterthan the dew point of the air in the hold, do not ventilate with outside air.
Daily cargo inspection during the voyage
 During the voyage, it is most important that thecargo is inspected at approximately the same time every day from the cooler room. Like the

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thank you for the information and idea i think it will help to my reporting...
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