1.What is translation?
is the comprehension of themeaningof a text and the subsequentproduction of anequivalenttext, likewise calleda "translation," that communicates the samemessagein another language. The text that istranslated is called thesource text, and thelanguage that it is translated into is called thetarget language. The product is sometimescalled the target text. Translation, when practiced by relativelybilingualindividuals but especially when bypersons with limited proficiency in one or bothlanguages, involves a risk of spilling-overof idiomsandusagesfrom the source language
into the target language. On the other hand,inter-linguistic spillages have also served theuseful purpose of importingcalquesandloanwordsfrom a source language into a targetlanguage that had previously lacked a conceptor a convenient expression for the concept. Translators and interpreters have thus playedan important role in the evolution of languages andcultures.
, among the oldest known literaryworks, have been found in translations intoseveralSouthwest Asianlanguages of thesecond millennium BCE. The
Epic of Gilgamesh
may have been read, in their own languages, byearly authors of the
Developments since theIndustrial Revolution have influenced the practice of translation,nurturing schools, professional associations, andstandards.
TheInternethas helped expand themarket for translation and has facilitatedproductlocalization. Currently, some 75% of professional translators work with technicaltexts.
Since the 1940s,
[Lat.,=carrying across], therendering of a text into another language.Applied to literature, the term connotes the artof recomposing a work in another languagewithout losing its original flavor, or of finding ananalogous substitute, for example, ScottMoncrieff's
Remembrance of Things Past
À la recherche du temps perdu,
which,translated literally, means "Looking for Lost Time." Translations of the most ancient textsextant into modern languages are calleddecipherments. Two well-known examples arethe decoding of the Egyptian hieroglyphs on theRosetta Stone (see underRosetta) by JeanFrançois Champollion and the decoding of thePersian cuneiform inscriptions on the rock of Behistun by Henry Rawlinson. Translatingsacred texts has always been the chief meansby which a culture transmits its values toposterity. Important translations of the Biblebegan with the Vulgate (Hebrew and Greek intoLatin) of St. Jeromein the 4th cent. A.D. Englishtranslations of the Bible include that of JohnWyclif in the 14th cent. (from Latin),William Tyndale's in the 16th cent. (fromHebrew and Greek), and the great AuthorizedVersion of 1611, the King James Version, whichhas been called the most influential work of translation in any language. The Renaissancewas a golden age of translations, especially intoEnglish. Renewed interest in the Latin classicscreated a demand for renderings of Ovid's
(tr. by ArthurGolding,1565-67), Vergil's
(tr. by GawinDouglas, c.1515; Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, c.1540;and Richard Stanyhurst, 1582), andPlutarch's
(tr. by Sir Thomas North, 1579). The flavor of these renderings is indicated in theopening lines of Stanyhurst's
"Nowmanhood and garbroyles [battles] I chaunt, andmartial horror." In addition there weretranslations of important contemporary worksinto English: Castiglione's
(tr. by Sir Thomas Hoby, 1561), Montaigne's
(tr. by JohnFlorio, 1603), and Cervantes's
(tr. by John Shelton, 1612). Notabletranslations of the 19th and 20th cent. includeBaudelaire's translations of the works of EdgarAllan Poe, Scott Moncrieff's translation of Proust,and Eustache Morel's translation of James Joyce.American authors whose works have beentranslated into several European languagesinclude Mark Twain, Jack London, ErnestHemingway, John Dos Passos, Pearl Buck,Margaret Mitchell (
Gone with the Wind
), andUpton Sinclair, who set a record withtranslations into 47 languages.ETYMOLOGYEtymologically,
is a "carrying across"or "bringing across". TheLatin
, "across" +
or after the kindred
("I bring across" or "I lead across").
Additionally, theAncient Greekterm for"translation", μετάφρασις (
, "aspeaking across"), has suppliedEnglishwith
("a saying in other words", from theGreek παράφρασις,