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What is Difference Between Shiya & Sunni

What is Difference Between Shiya & Sunni

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Published by Tanweer Ahmad

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Published by: Tanweer Ahmad on Jun 20, 2010
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06/20/2010

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WHAT IS THE BASIS OFSHI’AH-SUNNI DISCORD?
By: Dr. Israr Ahmad
 
The following paragraphs about 
Shi’ah-Sunni 
differences are written from a Sunni perspective;
Shi’ah Muslims 
may not agree with all of it.
The history of the Shi’ah-Sunni Conflict is almost as old as that of the Muslim Ummah. Only 25years after the death of the Prophet (saw), internal discord and a series of civil wars started.This has been referred to in the history books as the “Al-Fitnatul Kubra” or the Great Discord.What was the cause of this internal conflict?
Every revolution is followed by counter-revolutionary movements, which seek to overthrowthe new order and to revert back to the previous system. Many of these counter-revolutionarymovements were dealt with by the first
Caliph
,
Abu Bakr (raa)
. However, there were still twogroups who openly resented both Islam and the Prophet of Islam, and these were the
 Jews of Arabia
and the
Persians
. The Jews were angry because they were expecting the final prophet to beone of the
Israelites
, and they could never accept and reconcile themselves with the fact that heturned out to be someone from the
Gentiles
. (The envy of the
 Jews of 
 
Madinah
is mentioned in
Surah Al-Baqarah
. It is also mentioned there that they refuse to believe in the Prophet even afterrecognizing him as the promised one, only because of their jealousy and arrogance). The othergroup that never accepted the ascendancy of Islam were the
Persians
, who developed a specialhatred towards the second
Caliph
,
Umar (raa),
under whose era
Iran
was conquered. Indeed, it wasa
Persian
man who killed
Umar (raa).
 During the later years of the
Caliphate of 
 
Uthman (raa)
an underground conspiracy washatched, led by
Abdullah Ibn Saba
, a Jew who had outwardly converted to Islam, in order toproduce political unrest. The conspiracy succeeded, mainly because a lack of propercommunication facilities in those days made the spread of rumors against the
Khalifah
rather easy.This resulted in a rebellion against
Uthman (raa)
on various fabricated charges of nepotism, and hewas martyred in the course of the rebellion. In this chaotic situation,
Ali (raa)
became the next
Caliph
. A disagreement arose among the Muslims about the killers of 
Uthman (raa).
Somedemanded that the killers, who were hiding among the supporters of 
Ali (raa),
must be punishedimmediately.
Ali (raa)
was of the opinion that we need some sort of order and peace to returnbefore we can do this. These two groups were known as the
“Shi’ah of Uthman”
and the
“Shi’ah of Ali”
meaning the
pro-Uthman
and the
pro-Ali
parties. As you can see, this was a purely politicaldisagreement, not a religious one. The
“Shi’ah of Uthman”
later became known as the
“Sunni”
andthe
“Shi’ah of Ali”
became just
“Shi’ah.”
 The
Shi’ah
community has four points of distinction as compared to the Sunni Muslims. Thefirst is the school of 
 jurisprudence
they follow, which is
Fiqh Jafari,
and it is just like
Fiqh Hanafi,
 or
Maliki
etc., except that
“Muta’h”
or temporary marriage is considered lawful by the
Fiqh Jafari,
 whereas it is prohibited in all the
Sunni schools
. The second is the
Shi’ah
belief in the
“infallible
 

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