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Published by: A.Skromnitsky on Jun 20, 2010
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12/04/2013

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The Comparative History of Numerical Notation
Stephen ChrisomalisDepartment of AnthropologyMcGill UniversityMay 2003A thesis submitted to McGill Universityin partial fulfilment of the requirements of the degree ofDoctor of Philosophy© Stephen Chrisomalis 2003
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Table of Contents
Chapter 1: Introduction 1Definitions 4Methodology 7Universal Comparison 8Culture History and Diachrony 11Structural Typology of Numerical Notation 17The Ontology of Number and the Comparative Method 25Constraints, Universals, and Regularities 30Cognition and Number 38Numerals and Writing 48Diffusion and Invention as Evolutionary Processes 55Technology, Function, and Efficiency 68Chapter
2:
Hieroglyphic Systems 82Egyptian Hieroglyphic 83Egyptian Hieratic 97Hebrew Hieratic 106Meroitic 108Egyptian Demotic IllLinear A (Minoan) 115Linear A Fractions 118Cretan Hieroglyphic 119Linear
B
(Mycenean) 120Hittite Hieroglyphic 124Urartian 127Cypriote syllabary 127Summary 129Chapter
3:
Levantine Systems 131Aramaic 132Phoenician 139Palmyrene 143Nabataean 145Kharoshthi 147Hatran 149Syriac (Estrangelo) 150Summary 152Chapter
4:
Italic Systems 154Etruscan 155Tuscan Tallies: A Modern Survival? 162Roman 163Computation with Roman Numerals 173Medieval - Additive 177Modifications and Replacement 180Arabico-Hispanic Variants 186Calendar Numerals 189Greek acrophonic 192
 
Lycian 202South Arabian 206Berber 209Summary 212Chapter
5:
Alphabetic Systems 214Greek alphabetic 217Coptic 232Ethiopic 235Gothic 239Hebrew alphabetic 241Syriac alphabetic 248Arabic abjad 251Astronomical fractions 259Fez numerals 264Armenian 268Shirakatsi's notation 271Georgian 273Glagolitic 276Cyrillic 279Summary 281Chapter
6:
South Asian Systems 286Brahmi 286From addition to position 297Modern South Asian 304North India 304Central Asia 305South India 306Southeast Asia 307Tamil 308Malayalam 311Sinhalese 313Indian alphasyllabic 314Aryabhata's numerals 315Katapayadi numerals 320Aksharapalli 323Arabic positional 325Ghubar numerals 328Western 332Summary 338Chapter 7: Mesopotamian Systems 340Proto-cuneiform 341Sexagesimal systems 344Bisexagesimal systems 344GAN
2
system 345EN system 345SE systems 346
U4
system 346

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