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Capital Budgeting

Capital Budgeting

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Published by keertheswaran
some details about capital budgeting techniques
some details about capital budgeting techniques

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Published by: keertheswaran on Jun 21, 2010
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06/22/2014

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CAPITAL BUDGETINGCAPITAL BUDGETING
(or investment appraisal) is the planning process used todetermine whether a firm's long term investments such as new machinery, replacementmachinery, new plants, new products, and research development projects are worth pursuing. Itis budget for major capital, or investment, expenditures.
[1]
 Many formal methods are used in capital budgeting, including the techniques such as
 
A
ccounting rate of return
 
 N
et present value
 
P
rofitability index
 
Internal rate of return
 
E
quivalent annuity
ACCOUNTING RATE OF RETURN
,
 Accounting rate of return
, also known as the
Average rate of return
, or 
ARR 
is afinancial ratio used in capital budgeting.
[1]
The ratio does not take into account the conceptof time value of money.
ARR 
calculates the return, generated from net income of the proposedcapital investment. The
ARR 
is a percentage return. Say, if 
ARR 
= 7%, then it means that the project is expected to earn seven cents out each dollar invested. If the
ARR 
is equal to or greater than the required rate of return, the project is acceptable. If it is less than the desired rate, itshould be rejected. When comparing investments, the higher the
ARR 
, the more attractive theinvestment.
[2]
Managerial
A
ccounting.
Average Rate of Return is calculated by using the formula:(Net return per year / initial investment) x 100NET PRESENT VALUE
(
NPV
)
Net Present Value
(
NPV
) Or 
Net Present Worth
(
NPW
) of a time series of cash flows, both incoming and outgoing, is defined as the sum of the present values (
PV
s) of the individualcash flows. In the case when all future cash flows are incoming (such as coupons and principal of a bond) and the only outflow of cash is the purchase price, the
 NPV
is simply the
PV
of futurecash flows minus the purchase price (which is its own
PV
).
 NPV
is a central tool in discountedcash flow (DCF) analysis, and is a standard method for using the time value of money toappraise long-term projects. Used for capital budgeting, and widelythroughout economics, finance, and accounting, it measures the excess or shortfall of cash flows,in present value terms, once financing charges are met.
 
The
 NPV
of a sequence of cash flows takes as input the cash flows and a discount rate or discount curve and outputting a price; the converse process in DCF analysis, taking as input asequence of cash flows and a price and inferring as output a discount rate (the discount ratewhich would yield the given price as
 NPV
) is called the yield, and is more widely used in bondtrading.
E
ach cash inflow/outflow is discounted back to its present value (
PV
). Then they are summed.Therefore
 NPV
is the sum of all terms,where
- the time of the cash flow
i
- the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment in thefinancial markets with similar risk.)
 R
- the net cash flow (the amount of cash, inflow minus outflow) at time
(for educational purposes,
 R
0
is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its roleas (minus) the investment.
PROFITABILITY INDEX
 
Profitability Index
(
P
I), also known as
profit investment ratio
(
P
I
) and
valueinvestment ratio
(
V
I
), is the ratio of investment to payoff of a proposed project. It is a usefultool for ranking projects because it allows you to quantify the amount of value created per unit of investment.The ratio is calculated as follows:
A
ssuming that the cash flow calculated does not include the investment made in the project, a profitability index of 1 indicates breakeven.
A
ny value lower than one would indicate that the project's
PV
is less than the initial investment
A
s the value of the profitability index increases, sodoes the financial attractiveness of the proposed project.
ules for selection or rejection of a project:
 
If 
P
I > 1 then accept the project
 
If 
P
I < 1 then reject the project

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