The Honorable Richard D. Cudahy, Senior Circuit Judge, United StatesCourt of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, sitting by designation.
curiae brief for the American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers, theAmerican Society of Media Photographers, the Association of AmericanPublishers, Broadcast Music, Inc., Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co., theMusic Publishers Association of the United States, the Software and InformationIndustry Association, the Recording Industry Association of America, and ReedElsevier, Inc.Seth P. Waxman, Randolph D. Moss, D. Hien Tran, and Thomas Saunders, of Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP, Washington, D.C., have filed anamicus curiae brief for the Motion Picture Association of America, Inc.Eric M. Lieberman, David B. Goldstein, and Christopher J. Klatell, of Rabinowitz, Boudin, Standard, Krinsky & Lieberman, P.C., New York, NewYork, have filed an amicus curiae brief for the International Coalition forCopyright Protection.Alan C. Friedberg of Pendleton, Friedberg, Wilson & Hennessey, P.C., Denver,Colorado, has filed an amicus curiae brief for Professor Daniel J. Gervais.Before
, Circuit Judges.
, Chief Judge.Plaintiffs brought this action challenging the constitutionality of Section514 of the Uruguay Round Agreements Act (“URAA”), Pub. L. No. 103-465,§ 514, 108 Stat. 4809, 4976–81 (1994) (codified as amended at 17 U.S.C. §§104A, 109), which granted copyright protection to various foreign works thatwere previously in the public domain in the United States. The district courtgranted plaintiffs’ motion for summary judgment, concluding that Section 514