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Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Correction and Reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography Images

Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Correction and Reconstruction of Positron Emission Tomography Images

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Published by jdoinca
Doctoral thesis from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Defended, 20th of December, 1999.
Doctoral thesis from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. Defended, 20th of December, 1999.

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Published by: jdoinca on Jun 22, 2010
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Diss. ETH No. 13484
Magnetic Resonance Imaging Based Correctionand Reconstruction of Positron EmissionTomography Images
A dissertation submitted to the
for the degree of Doctor of Technical Sciencespresented by
Jonathan David Oakley
B.Sc., M.Phil.born September 13, 1970accepted on the recommendation of Prof. Dr. G´abor Sz´ekely, examinerProf. Dr. Hans Herzog, co-examinerDr. John Missimer, co-examinerZurich, January 20, 2000
Due to the inherently limited resolution of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scannersand the subsequent poor ability to resolve detail in reconstructed images, tracer activityobserved in active regions such as grey matter (GM) is often less than actual activity; ininactive regions such as white matter (WM), more. Such errors become especially signifi-cant in regions having dimensions of less than twice the available resolution. Accuracy of the quantitative measurements taken is thus influenced by the undesirable partial volumeaveraging of, for example, brain with cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF), bone and scalp regions.Various efforts have been made to correct for this, and more recently, to address the moresubtle influence of the so-called partial volume effect (PVE) occurring across regions of GM and WM.The work presented in this report is toward the support of better quantitative analysisin PET imaging. The emphasis here is to address the problem of limited resolution froma purely information processing perspective; that is, ignoring the role played by the typeof tracer used and possible hardware modifications (crystal choice, et. cetera), which willalso have a significant influence on such an analysis. On the basis of the data accumulatedby the acquisition process, efforts toward better quantification in PET images must beginby operating on the raw, sinogram data. And, as is concluded in this work, all techniquesthat operate at the image level alone - namely enhancement methods - would be betterformulated as part of the reconstruction step.The general concern of this doctoral work is how to use associated structural informa-tion to improve the quality of the PET images. This information is available in the form of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data, a modality capable of resolving fine structuraldetail in the brain. Within this topic area, the specifics of the thesis work can be broadlyclassified into four themes, and to each of these I can cite a contribution to the existingknowledge and technology.The first covers method of PVE correction applied in accordance to associated struc-tural information at the image level. A limiting factor of such techniques is the assumedhomogeneity in the within-tissue activity distribution. The implementation presented hereforsakes such an assumption, and models the variation in terms of basis functions.The remaining themes arose from the shortcomings of this correction method, takingthe research into the field of statistical image reconstruction. Within this realm, thesecond contribution comprises an interpolation technique that, in modelling uncertaintyabout the emission source, is able to produce better regularised and improved resolutionreconstructions.Akin to the second contribution, the third aspect of the work seeks also to addressmisgivings of the pixel-based correction methods, this time with regard to the use of the“prior” information. Here, a more robust and theoretically stringent pseudo-Bayesian

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