6) What is system software?Ans: System software consists of programs that control the operations of the computer system itself which include managing memory, managing peripherals, Loading, Storing and it also acts as aninterface between the application program and the computer. E.g. M.S Dos, UNIX etc.System software can be categorized into the following types:a) Operating System. b) File Management/System Development Software.c) Translators.d) Utilities/Tools.
Module 3 - Functional & Enterprise Systems
1)What is E.R.P?Ans: Enterprise Resource Planning is a class of software package which aims to integrate alldepartments and functions across the organization into a single computer system that can serve allthose departments’ particular needs. E.R.P combines different department systems into a singledatabase, so that different departments can easily share information and communicate with each other.Therefore E.R.P ensures accurate and up to date information is maintained in the central database.2)What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of E.R.P?Ans: With an E.R.P System, a large company easily shares information, because all systems are joinedtogether and all functional departments share information more easily.Following are few of the advantages of E.R.P:a)E.R.P systems can be used to manage the customer’s order from the time of receiving the order tillthe shipping, the merchandise and finance sending an invoice. By having this information is onesystem companies can keep track of orders more easily and co ordinate manufacturing, inventoryand shipping among many different locations at the same time. b)Standardization and Speeding up process: Manufacturing companies often find that multiple business units across the company make the same widget using different methods and computer systems. E.R.P systems come in with standard methods for automating some of the steps of themanufacturing process. Standardizing these processes and using a single, integrated computer system can save time, increase productivity and reduce head count.c)Standardization of H.R function: In companies with multiple business units, human resourcefunction may not have a unified, simple method for tracking employee’s time and communicatingwith them about benefits and services. E.R.P can fix this problem.d)Inventory Reduction: E.R.P helps in manufacturing process flow smoothly and it improvesvisibility of the order fulfillment process inside the company. This can lead to reduced inventoriesand it can help user’s better plan deliveries to customers and reducing the finished goodsinventories at the warehouses and shipping docks.e)Organizational Integration: E.R.P packages addresses issues of organizational integration acrossfunctions and locations as they are organized in function modules that draw data from commondatabases.Disadvantages of E.R.P:a)Training Costs: Training expenses are high in E.R.P implementation as workers almost invariablyhave to learn a new set of processes and not just a new software interface. b)Testing the links between E.R.P packages and other corporate software links that have to be builton a case by case basis is another major cost as all require links to E.R.P.c)Data conversion and Analysis: It costs a heavy amount to move corporate information, such ascustomer and supplier records, product design and etc from the old systems to the new E.R.Psystem also the data may require some changes to match the process modifications by the E.R.Pimplementation.d)Changes and Customization: The customization of the core E.R.P software is very expensive. If the E.R.P software cannot handle one of the business process, the firm will have to change the