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IT for Business

IT for Business

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Published by mrsukesh
Bangalore University MBA 1st Semester Subjects
Bangalore University MBA 1st Semester Subjects

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Categories:Types, Business/Law
Published by: mrsukesh on Jun 23, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Module 1: Hardware & Software Basics
Definitions of Simple Terms:Computer: Computer is a machine capable of processing data according to a program, it is used in makingcalculations or controlling operations that are expressible in numerical or logical terms.Hardware: Physical Components in a computer system such as keyboard, disk drive and printer, machineryand equipment are called hardware of a computer.Software: Software is a computer programming code that provides a computer with instructions to performspecific tasks.System Software: System Software or Operating System is the software that controls the operations of acomputer system; it is a group of programs rather than one program. The operating system controls thehardware of the computer and peripherals, it manages memory, files and Multi Tasking functions. It is theinterface between applications programs and the computer.Application Software: It is a subclass of computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly to a task that the user wishes to perform. Application software includes games, word processing packages, database software and graphics packages and so on.Compilers: Complier is a program that translates the source code to a language that a computer canunderstand, in other words it translates high level language programs to the machine level language. Itscans the entire program first and then translates it into machine code.Interpreters: An interpreter executes the source code program by translating one instruction at a time intomachine code and then sends the machine code to the processor for immediate execution.Question and Answers:Explain important characteristics of a computer?Ans: The important characteristics of a computer are:Speed: Computer is a fast device; it can perform the amount of work in few seconds that a human being cando in an entire year. A powerful computer is capable of performing about 3 to 4 million sample arithmeticcalculations per second.Accuracy: The accuracy of a computer is very high even though the degree of accuracy of a computer depends on its design.Diligence: Unlike human beings a computer is free from monotony, tiredness, lack of concentration etc andcan work for hours without any error. Hence computers score over human beings in doing routine types of  jobs that require great accuracy.Versatility: Computers seem to be capable of performing almost any task provided that task can be reducedto a series of logical steps.State Different types of computer?Ans: Different types of computers include:Personal Computer: It is a computer designed for general use by a single person.Desktop: It is a PC that is not designed for portability; it must be set up in a permanent location.Laptop: They are portable computers that integrate the display, keyboard, processor, memory, hard drive, pointing device or a trackball all in single a battery operated package.Palmtop: They are more commonly known as personal digital assistants (P.D.A’s), palmtops are tightlyintegrated computers that often use flash memory instead of hard drive for storage. They usually do nothave keyboards and reply on touch screen technology for user input.Workstation: A desktop computer that has a more powerful processor, additional memory and enhancedcapabilities for performing a special group of task, such as 3D graphics or game development.
Servers: It is a computer that has been optimized to provide services to other computers over a network.They usually have powerful processors and large hard drives.Mainframe: In the early days of computing, mainframes were huge computers that could fill up an entireroom or a floor.Supercomputers: This type of computer usually costs hundreds of thousands of dollars. They are mostlycomprised of multiple high performing computers working in parallel to each other as a single system.Wearable: The latest trend in computing is the wearable computers. Essentially, common computer applications (e-mail, database, multimedia, calendars/scheduler etc) are integrated into Watches, Cell phones etc.
Module 2 - Information Systems & Strategic Implications
1)What is Data?Ans: Data is the raw facts and observations, typically about physical phenomena of businesstransactions. It is the input material for any information system which has to be processed. The data is processed by the information system to produce information. Data may be entered into the system or generated by the information system itself.2)What is information?Ans: Information can be defined as the data that has been processed into a form that is used in the present decision situation.Information can be categorized on the basis of the purpose for which the information is utilized.Broadly it can be categorized as:a)Strategic Information: It is needed for long range and strategic decisions which are taken by thetop management people; strategic information is required for the planning and policy formulationof the business. b)Tactical Information: It is used to take medium rage decisions and usually the time period itcovers is around one year. E.g. Sales analysis and forecasts, financial projections etc.c)Operational Information: It is required for the routine operations of a business organization.Operational information applies to very short term period which may vary from an hour to a fewdays. E.g. Current stock in hand, outstanding purchase order etc.3)What is an information system?Ans: An information system can be any organized combination of people, hardware, software,communications networks and data resources that collects, transforms and disseminates in anorganization.The scope of information systems includes manual, computer based and other forms automated procedures and applications of information technology generally.4)Distinguish between data and Information?Ans: Data are streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physicalenvironment, before that have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand anduse.Information is data that has been shaped into a form that is meaningful and useful to human beings.Data is independent of user whereas information is user dependent.Data is the result of routine recording of events and activities taking place whereas information isuser driven which is not always automatic.Information arises from data but all in data do not become information.5) What is systems approach?Ans: A systematic process of problem solving based on scientific methods which define the problemand opportunities in a system context.
6) What is system software?Ans: System software consists of programs that control the operations of the computer system itself which include managing memory, managing peripherals, Loading, Storing and it also acts as aninterface between the application program and the computer. E.g. M.S Dos, UNIX etc.System software can be categorized into the following types:a) Operating System. b) File Management/System Development Software.c) Translators.d) Utilities/Tools.
Module 3 - Functional & Enterprise Systems
1)What is E.R.P?Ans: Enterprise Resource Planning is a class of software package which aims to integrate alldepartments and functions across the organization into a single computer system that can serve allthose departments’ particular needs. E.R.P combines different department systems into a singledatabase, so that different departments can easily share information and communicate with each other.Therefore E.R.P ensures accurate and up to date information is maintained in the central database.2)What are the Advantages and Disadvantages of E.R.P?Ans: With an E.R.P System, a large company easily shares information, because all systems are joinedtogether and all functional departments share information more easily.Following are few of the advantages of E.R.P:a)E.R.P systems can be used to manage the customer’s order from the time of receiving the order tillthe shipping, the merchandise and finance sending an invoice. By having this information is onesystem companies can keep track of orders more easily and co ordinate manufacturing, inventoryand shipping among many different locations at the same time. b)Standardization and Speeding up process: Manufacturing companies often find that multiple business units across the company make the same widget using different methods and computer systems. E.R.P systems come in with standard methods for automating some of the steps of themanufacturing process. Standardizing these processes and using a single, integrated computer system can save time, increase productivity and reduce head count.c)Standardization of H.R function: In companies with multiple business units, human resourcefunction may not have a unified, simple method for tracking employee’s time and communicatingwith them about benefits and services. E.R.P can fix this problem.d)Inventory Reduction: E.R.P helps in manufacturing process flow smoothly and it improvesvisibility of the order fulfillment process inside the company. This can lead to reduced inventoriesand it can help user’s better plan deliveries to customers and reducing the finished goodsinventories at the warehouses and shipping docks.e)Organizational Integration: E.R.P packages addresses issues of organizational integration acrossfunctions and locations as they are organized in function modules that draw data from commondatabases.Disadvantages of E.R.P:a)Training Costs: Training expenses are high in E.R.P implementation as workers almost invariablyhave to learn a new set of processes and not just a new software interface. b)Testing the links between E.R.P packages and other corporate software links that have to be builton a case by case basis is another major cost as all require links to E.R.P.c)Data conversion and Analysis: It costs a heavy amount to move corporate information, such ascustomer and supplier records, product design and etc from the old systems to the new E.R.Psystem also the data may require some changes to match the process modifications by the E.R.Pimplementation.d)Changes and Customization: The customization of the core E.R.P software is very expensive. Ithe E.R.P software cannot handle one of the business process, the firm will have to change the

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