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mwt Unit I

mwt Unit I

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Published by: Rengabilla on Jun 23, 2010
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06/28/2013

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1
UNIT I CLIENT / SERVER CONCEPTS
What is Middleware?
 
Middleware does not include the software that provides the actual servicethat’s in the server’s domain.
 
It also does not include the user interface or the application’s logic that’s in theclient’s domain.
 
It starts with the API set on the client side that is used to invoke a service, andit covers the transmission of the request over the network and the resultingresponse.
 
Middleware divided into two broad classes:(a) General Middleware (b) Service-Specific Middleware
 a) General Middleware
 
 
It is the substrate for most client/server interactions
 
It includes the communication stacks, distributed directories, authenticationstacks, distributed directories, authentication services, network time, remoteprocedure calls, and queuing services.
 
Products that fall into the general middleware category include DCE, ONC+,NetWare, NamedPipes, LAN Server, LAN Manager, Vines, TCP/IP, APPCand NetBIOS.
 
Message Oriented Middleware (MOM) products from Peerlogic, Covia,Message Express, System Strategies and IBM.
 
These are depends on message queue system and increases portability,interoperability, flexibility.
 b) Service-Specific Middleware
 
 
It is need to accomplish a particular client/server type of service.
 
This includes
 
2
o
 
Database-specific middleware
such as ODBC, DRDA, EDA/SQL,SAG/CLI and Oracle Glue.
o
 
OLTP-specific middleware
such as Tuxedo’s ATMI and /WS,Encina’s Transactional RPC, and X/Open’s TxRPC and XATMI
o
 
Groupware-specific middleware
such as MAPI, VIM, VIC, SMTPand Lotus Notes Calls
o
 
Object-specific middleware
such as OMG’s CORBA and Microsoft’sNetwork OLE (or DCOM)
o
 
Internet-specific middleware
such as HTTP, S-HTTP and SSL
o
 
System Management-specific middleware
such as SNMP, CMIP andORBs.
Client/Server Concepts
Client-server
is acomputing architecturewhich separates aclientfrom a server, and is almost always implemented over acomputer network . Each client or server connected to a network can also be referred to as anode. The most basic typeof client-serverarchitectureemploys only two types of nodes: clients and servers.This type of architecture is sometimes referred to as
two-tier 
. It allows devices toshare files and resources.Eachinstanceof the client software can send datarequeststo one or more connected
server 
s. In turn, the servers can accept these requests, process them, andreturn the requested information to the client. Although this concept can be appliedfor a variety of reasons to many different kinds of applications, the architectureremains fundamentally the same.These days, clients are most oftenweb browsers, although that has not alwaysbeen the case. Servers typically includeweb servers,database serversandmail servers.Online gamingis usually client-server too. In the specific case of MMORPG,
 
3the servers are typically operated by the company selling the game; for other gamesone of the players will act as the host by setting his game in server mode.The interaction between client and server is often described usingsequencediagrams. Sequence diagrams are standardized in theUnified Modeling Language.
Contents
 
 
1 Characteristics 
o
 
1.1 Characteristics of a client 
o
 
1.2 Characteristics of a server 
 
2 Multi-tiered architecture 
 
3 Comparison to Peer-to-Peer Architecture 
 
4 Comparison to Client-Queue-Client Architecture 
 
5 Advantages 
 
6 Disadvantages 
 
7 Examples 
 
8 Notes 
 
9 See also 
Characteristics
 
Characteristics of a client
 
 
Request sender is known as client
 
Initiates requests
 
Waits for and receives replies.
 
Usually connects to a small number of servers at one time
 
Typically interacts directly with end-users using agraphical user interface 
Characteristics of a server
 
 
Receiver of request which is send by client is known as server
 
Passive (slave
 
)
 
Waits for requests from clients

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