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consciousness studies

consciousness studies

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Published by: 420 on Sep 27, 2007
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ConsciousnessStudies
Edition 2.0
1
 
Table of Contents
Authors........................................................................................................................................5Introduction.................................................................................................................................6A note on Naive Realism........................................................................................................7Other uses of the term "Consciousness".................................................................................8Intended audience and how to read this book........................................................................9Part I: Historical Review...........................................................................................................10Early Ideas.................................................................................................................................10Aristotle. (c.350 BC). On the Soul.......................................................................................10Homer,(c.800-900 BC)The Iliad and Odyssey.....................................................................12Plato (427-347BC)...............................................................................................................13Siddhartha Gautama c.500BC Buddhist Texts.....................................................................15Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century Philosophy.....................................................................18Rene Descartes (1596-1650)................................................................................................18Dubitability......................................................................................................................18The description of thoughts and mind.............................................................................19Anatomical and physiological ideas................................................................................22John Locke (1632-1704)......................................................................................................24David Hume (1711-1776)....................................................................................................27Immanuel Kant (1724-1804)................................................................................................29Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz (1646-1716)..............................................................................32George Berkeley (1685 - 1753)............................................................................................34Thomas Reid (1710-1796)....................................................................................................38References............................................................................................................................39 Nineteenth and twentieth century philosophy of consciousness...............................................41ER Clay................................................................................................................................41Alfred North Whitehead.......................................................................................................41Edmund Husserl...................................................................................................................43Daniel Clement Dennett (1942 -).........................................................................................45 Ned Block (1942- )...............................................................................................................49Two types of consciousness............................................................................................49Reaction......................................................................................................................50Forms of phenomenal consciousness that are open to introspection...............................51Reactions.....................................................................................................................52References.......................................................................................................................53Francis Crick (1916 - 2004).................................................................................................53David J Chalmers.................................................................................................................55Review of "The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory". OxfordUniversity Press. 1996.....................................................................................................55Thomas Nagel.......................................................................................................................58Part II: The problem of consciousness......................................................................................59The definition and description of consciousness..................................................................59Introduction.....................................................................................................................59Space and Time...............................................................................................................59Qualia...............................................................................................................................60Awareness........................................................................................................................60Types of Consciousness...................................................................................................61Observations and Denials................................................................................................612
 
The viewing point and the observer................................................................................62Early materialism and the nature of what must be explained..........................................65References.......................................................................................................................65The conflict - supervenience and the location of the contents of consciousness......................67The problem of regression....................................................................................................68The Subject-Object paradox.................................................................................................70The homunculus argument in philosophy of mind...............................................................71The ontological status of regression, recursion and the subject-object paradox..................72References............................................................................................................................74Phenomenal consciousness and access consciousness.........................................................76Direct Realism......................................................................................................................81Indirect Realism...................................................................................................................89Intentionality and representation.....................................................................................91Cartesian materialism......................................................................................................91Identity theories of mind..................................................................................................92Dualism................................................................................................................................92Cartesian dualism............................................................................................................92Property dualism..............................................................................................................93Predicate dualism.............................................................................................................95The interaction between mind and brain in dualism........................................................95Interactionism.............................................................................................................95Epiphenomalism.........................................................................................................95Parallelism...................................................................................................................96Occasionalism.............................................................................................................96Further reading............................................................................................................96Idealism................................................................................................................................96Panpsychism.........................................................................................................................96References............................................................................................................................97The philosophical problem......................................................................................................100Epiphenomenalism and the problem of change.................................................................100The problem of time...........................................................................................................101The past century of ideas about time.............................................................................101Presentism and Four-Dimensionalism...........................................................................104The existence of time.....................................................................................................105The nature of time..........................................................................................................108The nature of classical time......................................................................................108Relationalism, Substantivalism, the Hole Argument and General Covariance.............112Relationalism and Substantivalism...........................................................................112General Covariance and the Hole Argument............................................................113Quantum theory and time..............................................................................................115The general problem of QM and time.......................................................................115The interpretation of QM..........................................................................................116Time and conscious experience.....................................................................................117The problem of space.........................................................................................................119The problem of qualia........................................................................................................122The physics of qualia.....................................................................................................122The philosophy of qualia...............................................................................................123Elementary Information and Information Systems Theory................................................126Classification, signs, sense, relations, supervenience etc...................................................129Qualia and Information......................................................................................................1363

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