For example, by the 1950's there were concentratedcommunities of Italian-Americans in and around "Little Italy,"Polish-Americans in the Patterson Park area, Greek-Americans in"Greektown" around the east side of Eastern Avenue, German- Americans in Northeast Baltimore, Jewish-Americans in NorthwestBaltimore, Chinese-Americans in a small "Chinatown" etc.
For example, in some states public drinking fountainswere labeled by race and streetcars and buses had White and"Colored" seating areas.
As the largest municipality in Maryland, a former slavestate with a post emancipation policy of racial discrimination,Baltimore City historically had de jure racial segregation and atradition of voluntary ethnic segregation as well.
Certainly,other cities below the Mason-Dixon line, including Washington,D.C., practiced racial segregation and the racial discriminationin Maryland did not rise to the point that it did in certainstates.
Nevertheless, in 1954 there was, to a large extent, arecognizable "ghetto" within which lived essentially no Whitesand virtually all of the Black residents of Baltimore City. Moreover, to the limited extent that there were Black residentsof the counties in the Baltimore Region, the racial segregationthere was, if different at all, even more pronounced.In Baltimore City, until 1954, there were two separateschool systems and there were, for all practical purposes, twoseparate downtowns. Whites frequented the large departmentstores, shops, theaters and restaurants of White Downtown in the