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engineering acoustics

engineering acoustics

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Edition 1.0 30th April 2006Engineering Accoustics from Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection
 Note: current version of this book can be found at http:/en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Engineering_Acoustics
 
2
C
ONTRIBUTORS
.........................................................................................................................................................6
P
ART
1: L
UMPED
A
COUSTICAL
S
YSTEMS
...............................................................................................................7S
IMPLE
O
SCILLATION
................................................................................................................................................7Solving for the Position Equation........................................................................................................................7Alternate Position Equation Forms......................................................................................................................9F
ORCED
O
SCILLATIONS
(S
IMPLE
S
PRING
-M
ASS
S
YSTEM
)........................................................................................10M
ECHANICAL
R
ESISTANCE
......................................................................................................................................19Mechanical Resistance.......................................................................................................................................19Dashpots.............................................................................................................................................................19Modeling the Damped Oscillator.......................................................................................................................20Mechanical Impedance for Damped Oscillator..................................................................................................21C
HARACTERIZING
D
AMPED
M
ECHANICAL
S
YSTEMS
...............................................................................................22Characterizing Damped Mechanical Systems....................................................................................................22Calculating the Mechanical Resistance..............................................................................................................22Critical Damping................................................................................................................................................22Damping Ratio...................................................................................................................................................22Quality Factor....................................................................................................................................................23E
LECTRO
-M
ECHANICAL
A
NALOGIES
.......................................................................................................................24Why analogs to circuits?....................................................................................................................................24Two possible analogies......................................................................................................................................24The equivalent spring.........................................................................................................................................24The equivalent Mass..........................................................................................................................................25The equivalent resistance...................................................................................................................................25Review of Circuit Solving Methods...................................................................................................................25A
DDITIONAL
R
ESOURCES FOR SOLVING LINEAR CIRCUITS
:......................................................................................26M
ETHODS FOR CHECKING
E
LECTRO
-M
ECHANICAL
A
NALOGIES
..............................................................................271. Low-Frequency Limits:..................................................................................................................................272. Dot Method: (Valid only for planar network)................................................................................................27E
XAMPLES OF
E
LECTRO
-M
ECHANICAL
A
NALOGIES
................................................................................................28Example 1..........................................................................................................................................................28Example 1 Solution............................................................................................................................................28Example 2..........................................................................................................................................................29Example 2 Solution............................................................................................................................................30Example 3..........................................................................................................................................................31P
RIMARY VARIABLES OF INTEREST
..........................................................................................................................34Basic Assumptions.............................................................................................................................................34Variables of interest...........................................................................................................................................35E
LECTRO
-
ACOUSTIC ANALOGIES
.............................................................................................................................37Electro-acoustical Analogies..............................................................................................................................37T
RANSDUCERS
- L
OUDSPEAKER
..............................................................................................................................48Acoustic Transducer...........................................................................................................................................48Magnet Motor Drive System..............................................................................................................................48Loudspeaker Cone System.................................................................................................................................48Loudspeaker Suspension....................................................................................................................................48M
OVING
R
ESONATORS
............................................................................................................................................48Moving Resonators............................................................................................................................................48Example.............................................................................................................................................................50
P
ART
2: O
NE
-D
IMENSIONAL
W
AVE
M
OTION
.......................................................................................................51T
RANSVERSE VIBRATIONS OF STRINGS
....................................................................................................................51Introduction........................................................................................................................................................51What is a wave equation?...................................................................................................................................51One dimensional Case........................................................................................................................................51
 
3
Characterization of the mechanical system........................................................................................................53T
IME
-D
OMAIN
S
OLUTIONS
......................................................................................................................................55d'Alembert Solutions..........................................................................................................................................55Example of Time Domain Solution...................................................................................................................55B
OUNDARY
C
ONDITIONS AND
F
ORCED
V
IBRATIONS
...............................................................................................57Boundary Conditions.........................................................................................................................................57Wave Properties.................................................................................................................................................65Forced Vibrations...............................................................................................................................................66
P
ART
3: A
PPLICATIONS
.........................................................................................................................................70R
OOM
A
COUSTICS AND
C
ONCERT
H
ALLS
................................................................................................................70Introduction........................................................................................................................................................70Sound Fields.......................................................................................................................................................70Room Coefficients.............................................................................................................................................70Sound Decay and Reverberation Time...............................................................................................................72Great Halls in the World....................................................................................................................................73References..........................................................................................................................................................73B
ASS
R
EFLEX
E
NCLOSURE
D
ESIGN
.........................................................................................................................74Introduction........................................................................................................................................................74Effects of the Port on the Enclosure Response...................................................................................................74Quantitative Analysis of Port on Enclosure.......................................................................................................76Development of Low-Frequency Pressure Response.........................................................................................78Alignments.........................................................................................................................................................79Butterworth Alignment......................................................................................................................................79Quasi-Butterworth Alignment............................................................................................................................80Equating the system response | H(s) |
2
with | H
QB3
(s) |
2
, the equations guiding the design can be found [1]:..81Chebyshev Alignment........................................................................................................................................81Thus, the design equations become [1]:.............................................................................................................83Choosing the Correct Alignment........................................................................................................................83References..........................................................................................................................................................84Appendix A: Equivalent Circuit Parameters......................................................................................................85Appendix B: Enclosure Parameter Formulas.....................................................................................................86N
EW
A
COUSTIC
F
ILTER
F
OR
U
LTRASONICS
M
EDIA
.................................................................................................88Introduction........................................................................................................................................................88Changes in Media Properties Due to Sound Wave Characteristics....................................................................88Why Coupled Acoustic Media in Acoustic Filters?...........................................................................................89Effects of High-Intensity, Ultrasonic Waves in Acoustic Media in Audio Frequency Spectrum......................91An Application of Coupled Media in Acoustic Filters.......................................................................................92References..........................................................................................................................................................94N
OISE IN
H
YDRAULIC
S
YSTEMS
...............................................................................................................................95Noise in Hydraulic Systems...............................................................................................................................95Sound in fluids...................................................................................................................................................95Source of Noise..................................................................................................................................................95Fluidborne Noise (FBN)....................................................................................................................................95Structure borne Noise (SBN).............................................................................................................................96Transmission......................................................................................................................................................97Airborne noise (ABN)........................................................................................................................................98Noise reduction..................................................................................................................................................99Hydraulic System noise....................................................................................................................................100References........................................................................................................................................................100B
ASIC
A
COUSTICS OF THE
M
ARIMBA
.....................................................................................................................101Introduction......................................................................................................................................................101Components of Sound......................................................................................................................................101Why would the marimba need tuning?............................................................................................................104Tuning Myths...................................................................................................................................................105

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