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introduction to paleoanthropology

introduction to paleoanthropology

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Published by: 420 on Sep 27, 2007
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Introduction toPaleoanthropology
 Edition 1.0 24th February 2006 
From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection
 Note: current version of this book can be found at http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Introduction_to_Paleoanthropology
 
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WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?..............................................................................................................................3INTRODUCTION TO THE LOWER PALEOLITHIC.......................................................................................6BONE TERMINOLOGY AND THE DEFINING OF HUMANS......................................................................9EARLY HOMINID FOSSILS: REVIEW OF EVIDENCE...............................................................................13PHYLOGENY AND CHRONOLOGY.............................................................................................................19HOMINOID, HOMINID, HUMAN..................................................................................................................22BEHAVIORAL PATTERNS OF THE EARLIEST HOMINIDS.....................................................................24Summary............................................................................................................................................................26THE OLDOWAN PERIOD...............................................................................................................................28Summary............................................................................................................................................................32THE ACHEULIAN PERIOD............................................................................................................................33Site distribution..................................................................................................................................................34HOMINIDS OF THE ACHEULIAN PERIOD.................................................................................................37ACHEULEAN TECHNOLOGY AND SUBSISTENCE..................................................................................41MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC HOMINIDS............................................................................................................46MIDDLE PALEOLITHIC TOOL AND SUBSISTENCE PATTERNS............................................................57EARLY UPPER PALEOLITHIC CULTURES.................................................................................................62LATE UPPER PALEOLITHIC CULTURES....................................................................................................67CHRONOLOGY AND DATING TECHNIQUES............................................................................................70CULTURAL EVOLUTION AND PROGRESS................................................................................................72PRE-DARWINIAN AND DARWINIAN THOUGHTS ON EVOLUTION....................................................78GENETICS: 19th AND 20th CENTURIES.......................................................................................................84LIVING PRIMATES.........................................................................................................................................92WHAT MAKES A PRIMATE HUMAN?.........................................................................................................99MODERN HUMAN BEHAVIOR: ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE......................................................................108FROM HUNTER-GATHERERS TO FOOD PRODUCERS..........................................................................115HUMAN VARIATION AND ADAPTATION...............................................................................................118L
ICENSE
.................................................................................................................................................................123GNU Free Documentation License..................................................................................................................1230. PREAMBLE................................................................................................................................................1231. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS.....................................................................................................1232. VERBATIM COPYING..............................................................................................................................1243. COPYING IN QUANTITY.........................................................................................................................1244. MODIFICATIONS......................................................................................................................................1245. COMBINING DOCUMENTS.....................................................................................................................1256. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS...........................................................................................................1257. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS.................................................................................1258. TRANSLATION..........................................................................................................................................1269. TERMINATION..........................................................................................................................................12610. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE.............................................................................................126External links...................................................................................................................................................126
Authors:David Speakman (Wikibooks user: Davodd) and anonymous authors.
 
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WHAT IS ANTHROPOLOGY?
The study of anthropology falls into four main fields:1.
 
Sociocultural anthropology2.
 
Linguistics3.
 
Archaeology4.
 
Physical anthropologyAlthough these disciplines are separate, they share common goals. All forms of anthopologyfocus on the following:
 
Diversity of human cultures observed in past and present.
 
Many scientific disciplines involved in study of human cultures.
 
Examples include:Psychology,biology,history,geographyamong others.
 
Anthropology holds a very central position in the world of science.
 
There is a long academic tradition in modern anthropology which is divided into four fields, asdefined by Franz Boas (1858-1942), who is generally considered the father of the field.
Sociocultural anthropology/ethnology
This field can trace its roots to global colonial times, when the European and Americandominance of overseas territories offered scholars access to different cultures. Over the years,this field has expanded intourban studies,gender studies,ethnic studiesandmedical anthropology.
Linguistics
This study of human speech and languages includes their structure, origins and diversity. Itfocuses on comparison between contemporary languages, identification of language families andpast relationships between human groups. It looks at:
 
Relationship between language and culture
 
Use of language in perception of various cultural and natural phenomena
 
Process of language acquisition, a phenomenon that is uniquely human, as well as the cognitive,cultural, and biological aspects involved in the process.
 
Through linguistics we can trace the migratiion trails of large groups of people (be it initiated bychoice, by natural disasters, by social and polical pressures). In reverse, we can trace movement

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