7.1 Which of the following statements are correct?
Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine agonist1
Flumazenil is a benzodiazepine antagonist1
Benzodiazepines are commonly used anxiolytic drugs1
Benzodiazepines may be used in the treatment of epilepsy1
Carbamazepine is a benzodiazepine
7.2 Which of the following statements are correct?
Lidocaine 0.2% with 1:80 000 adrenaline (epinephrine) is a commonlyused dental local anaesthetic1
Lidocaine has a longer lasting anaesthetic effect than bupivacaine1
Plain lidocaine provides more pronounced dental anaesthesia thanlidocaine with adrenaline1
Prilocaine 3% with 0.03 IU/ml felypressin is a commonly used dentallocal anaesthetic1
Lidocaine must be stored at 4 °C
7.3 Which of the following statements are correct?
A 2.2 ml cartridge of 2% lidocaine and 1:80 000 adrenaline contains 4.4mg of lidocaine1
Lidocaine and prilocaine contain an ester group1
Esters are less likely to cause allergic reactions than amides1
Amide local anaesthetics are metabolised by the liver1
Prilocaine has a much higher toxicity than lidocaineTHERAPEUTICS133
Benzodiazepines are central nervous system depressants and act assedatives,hypnotics, anxiolytics and anti-convulsants. Flumazenil is a benzodiazepineantagonist, commonly used to reverse the action of midazolam. Althoughhaving aname that sounds similar to benzodiazepine, carbamazepine is not abenzodiazepine.
Lidocaine 2% with 1:80 000 adrenaline is a commonly used dental localanaesthetic.It has a more pronounced effect than lidocaine alone as adrenaline causesvasoconstriction, which prevents the solution dispersing away from the siteof action.Bupivacaine is a longer lasting local anaesthetic than lidocaine.
A 2% solution will contain 20 mg/ml, so a 2.2 ml cartridge contains 44 mg of lidocaine. Lidocaine and prilocaine contain an amide group, and as such arelesslikely to cause an allergic reaction than an ester-containing local anaesthetic.Lidocaine has higher toxicity than prilocaine.