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Internal Forces and Moments

# Internal Forces and Moments

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07/20/2013

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ENGINEERINGMECHANICSFORSTRUCTURES
3.3
CHAPTER 3
Internal Forces andMoments
3.1Consequences of Equilibrium - The Truss Structure
We are ready to start talking business, to buy a loaf of bread. Up until now we havefocused on the rudimentary basics of the language; the vocabulary of force, moment, cou-ple and the syntax of static equilibrium of an isolated particle or extended body. This hasbeen an abstract discourse for the most part. We want now to start speaking about“extendedbodiesas
structuralmembers
,asthebuildingblocksof
trussstructures,framestructures, shafts and columns
and the like. We want to be go beyond questions aboutforces and moments required to satisfy equilibrium and ask “...When will this structurebreak? Will it carry the prescribed loading?”Wewilldiscoverthat,withourcurrentlanguageskills,wecanonlyanswerquestionsofthissortforonetypeofstructure,the
trussstructure
deformationsanddisplacements
trussstructure
atrussstructureismadeupofstraight,two-forcemembers,fastened together by frictionless pins; all loads are applied at the joints.
Now,weallknowthatthereisnosuchthingasatrulyfrictionlesspin;youwillnotﬁndtheminasupplierscatalogue.Andtorequirethattheloadsbeappliedatthejointsaloneseemsasevererestriction.How can we ensure that this constraint is abided by in use?Wecan’tand,indeed,frictionlesspinsdonotexist.Thisisnottosaythattherearenotsomewaysof fastening members together that act more like frictionless pins than other ways.What
does

Consequences of Equilibrium - The Truss
3.4
ENGINEERINGMECHANICSFORSTRUCTURES
straight,frictionlesspinnedmembers,loadedatthejointsalone)ofthestructure.Indeed,thisabstractrepre-sentation is what serves as the basis for the design of the truss structure in the ﬁrst place.Anymemberofthestructureshownabovewill,inourabstractmodeofimagining,beineitherten-sionorcompressionastateof
.Thinkofhavingapairofspecialeyeglassestrussseeingglassesthat,whenworn,enableyoutoseethefrictionlesspinsjoinedbystraightlinesandvectorforcesappliedatthejoints.Thisishowwewillusuallysketchthetrussstructure,asyouwouldseethemthroughsuchmagicalglasses.Ifyouimaginenowtakingoutoneofthemembers,saywithsquarecross-section,stillcarrying the load, say tension, you would see something like what’s shown below:Nowcontinueourimagining:Increasetheappliedloadsslowly.Thetensioninthismemberwillincreaseproportionally.Eventually,thememberwillfail.
Oftenastructurefailsatitsjoints.Weruleoutthispossibilityhere,assumingthatourjointshavebeen
over-designed
.
The
way
in
2
,thememberwill
fracture
,breakintwo,whenthetensileforceapproaches25,000
lb
600mm
2
itwill
yield
,begintodeform
plastically
,whenthetensileforcesapproaches195,000
Newtons
.Ineithercasethere is some magnitude of the tensile force we do not want to exceed if we wish to avoid failure.Continueonwiththethoughtexperiment:Imaginethatwereplacedthismemberinourtrussstruc-turewithanotherofthesamelengthbuttwicethecross-sectionalarea.Whattensileloadcanthemembernow carry before failure?Inthisimaginaryworld,thetensileforcerequiredforfailurewillbetwicewhatitwasbefore.Inotherwords,wetakethemeasureoffailureforatrussmemberintensiontobethe
tensile(orcompressive)stress
inthememberwherethestressisdeﬁnedasthemagnitudeoftheforcedividedbythecross-sectionalareaofthemember.Inthisweassumethattheforceis
uniformlydistributed
overthecross-sectionalareaasshown below.
A
=
F/AF
σ
AA

Consequences of Equilibrium - The Truss
ENGINEERINGMECHANICSFORSTRUCTURES
3.5
Furtheronwewilltakeacloserlookathowmaterialsfailduetointernalforces,notjusttensileandcompressive.Fornowwetakeitasanempiricalobservationandoperationalheuristicthattoavoidfractureoryieldingofatrussmemberwewanttokeepthe
tensileorcompressivestress
factorof safety
. Symbolically, we wantwhere I have introduced the symbol
σ
to designate the uniformly distributed stress.
Exercise 3.1
0.0mm
andwallthickness2.0
mm
,
estimate
P
youcanapplybeforethestructure yields.
1
In this take
θ
A
,
θ
B
to be 30
o
, 60
o
respectivelyRatherthanpickingupwhereweleftoffinouranalysisofExercise2.7.,wemakeanalternateiso-lation,thistimeofjoint,or
nodeD
showingtheunknownmemberforcesdirectedalongthemember.Byconvention,weassumethatbothmembersareintension.Ifthevalueforamemberforcecomesouttobenegative,weconcludethatthememberisincompressionratherthantension.
.Forceequilibriumofthis
nodeasparticle
thenprovidestwoscalarequationsforthetwoscalarunknown member forces. We have
1.Anotherfailuremode,otherthanyielding,ispossible:Member
might
buckle
.Wewillattendtothis possibility in the last chapter.
FA
⁄
FA
⁄ ( )
failure
or
σ σ
failure
<<
P
F
B
DD
F
B
F
A
AB
30
o
30.0
°
60.0
°
F
A
P
60
o
F
A
30
o
cos
F
B
60
o
cos
P+0F
A
30
o
sin
F
B
60
o
sin
0==

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