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Maths IGCSE Notes 19.12.06

# Maths IGCSE Notes 19.12.06

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Notes for Maths Edexcel iGCSE
Notes for Maths Edexcel iGCSE

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12/30/2014

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1.
Decimals and standard form
(a) multiplying and dividing
(i) Move the decimal points to the right until each is a wholenumber, noting the total number of moves, perform the multiplication, thenmove the decimal point back by the previous total:
2.51.36
251363400
×=
3.4
{Note in the previous example, that transferring a factor of 2, or even better,4, from the 136 to the 25 makes it easier:

}

2513625(434)(254)34100343400
×=××=×=
(ii) Move both decimal points together to the right until the
0.001750.042
divisor is a whole number, perform the calculation, and that is the answer.
1.7542
÷
, but simplify the calculation by cancelling down any factors first.In this case, both numbers share a 7, so divide this out: , and
0.256
÷
0.041660.25

0.0416

(iii) decimal places

To round a number to
n
d.p., count
n
digits to the right of the decimal point. If the digit following the
n
th
is , then the
n
5
th
digit is raised by 1.e.g. round 3.012678 to 3 d.p. so
3.0126783.012|678
3.013 to 3 d.p.(iv) significant figuresTo round a number to
n
s.f., count digits from the left starting with the firstnon-zero digit, then proceed as for decimal places.e.g. round 3109.85 to 3 s.f.,
3109.85
so
310|9.85
3110 to 3 s.f.e.g. round 0.0030162 to 3 s.f.,
0.0030162
, so
0.00301|62
0.00302 to 3 s.f.
(b) standard form
(iii) Convert the following to standard form: (a) 25 000 (b) 0.0000123Move the decimal point until you have a number
x
where
110
x
<
, and thenumber of places you moved the point will indicate the numerical value of the power of 10. So
4
250002.510
×
, and
5
0.00001231.2310
=×
(iv) multiplying in standard form:
()
5
(4.410)3.510
××
6
As all theelements are multiplied, rearrange them thus:
()
561112
(4.43.5)101015.4101.5410
×××=×=×
2

(v) dividing in standard form:
123
3.2102.510
××
Again, rearrange the calculation to
1239
(3.22.5)(1010)1.2810
×÷=×
(vi) adding/subtracting in standard form: Thehardest of the calculations. Convert both numbers into the same denomination,i.e. in this case 10
67
(2.510)(3.7510)
+×
6
or 10
7
77
(0.2510)(3.7510)410
×+×=×
7
Questions(a)
2.541.5
(b)
2.550

.015
(c) Convert into standard form and multiply:
250000000.00000000024
(d) (
32
2.610)(210)
×÷×
1.5510)2.510
××
(e)
(

)

34
×
, so
254153810
2.541.53.81
=
(b)
2.55
. Notice a factor of 5, so let’s cancel it first:
0.015255015
=÷
5103170
÷=
(c)
710
(2.510)(2.410)610
3
=×××=×
(d)
32
(2.62)(1010)1.310
5
×÷=×÷
(e)
33
(1.5510)(0.2510)1.310
−×=×
3
3