respect the right of the consumer to banal, contrary or down right stupid, and preserve theability of the individual to enter or leave the social change transaction as they see fit(Andreasen 1995, Kotler and Roberto, 1985)
Defining the parameters of Social Marketing
Social marketing, as the name implies, is grounded in commercial marketing theory andpractice. However, given that the application of social marketing is predominantly in noncommercial sectors, social marketing practice draws on a range of related disciplinesincluding sociology, psychology and other social welfare related activities. Social marketinghas had a range of definitions over the past thirty years, from the foundation definition in1971, where social marketing was defined as “the design, implementation, and control of programs calculated to influence the acceptability of product planning, pricing,communication, distribution and marketing research. (Kotler and Zaltman, 1971)” through tothe definition used most widely and consistently which defines social marketing as "theapplication of commercial marketing technologies to the analysis, planning, execution, andevaluation of programs designed to influence the voluntary behaviour of target audiences inorder to improve their personal welfare and that of their society." (Andreasen, 1995).Kotler, Roberto and Lee (2002) contributed to the contemporary social marketing debate byoffering the following definition of social marketing as “the use of marketing principles andtechniques to influence a target audience to voluntarily accept, reject, modify, or abandon abehaviour for the benefit of individuals, groups or society as a whole.” The consistentelements of the definition of social marketing have been the use of commercial marketingprinciples and techniques, voluntary action by the target of the social change, and the accrualof benefit to the individual, and the broader society. Within the context of the Kotler andAndreasen’s definitions, commercial marketing was defined as the process of planning andexecuting the conception, pricing, promotion, and distribution of ideas, goods, and services tocreate exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives’ (AMA, 1985, p. 2).Consequently, the marketing tools and techniques adapted for use in social change programswere based on the 1985 conceptual model of marketing, with its emphasis on the creation of exchange of goods, services and ideas (where exchange can be direct or indirect) through theapplication of the marketing mix.
Social Marketing 2006: Now with Direct Benefit and Stakeholders
In 2004, the nature of commercial marketing was radically altered by the American MarketingAssociation (AMA) releasing a revision of the formal definition of marketing. The AMA,with the tacit or otherwise endorsement of the global marketing community, relaunched themarketing definition as “an organizational function and a set of processes for creating,communicating and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships inways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders.” (AMA 2004). With the significantrepurposing of the definition of marketing, does commercial marketing remain compatiblewith social marketing, and vice versa?
Benefiting the Organisation and the Stakeholder
On the whole, social marketing fared reasonably poorly when commercial marketingrealigned itself as a business discipline focused on organisational and stakeholder benefit.The introduction of direct benefit to the organisation as a core tenet of the marketing conceptis the antithesis of the social marketing principle of indirect benefit. The previouslyimmutable boundary between societal marketing (social causes for commercial gain) andsocial marketing (social causes for societal benefit) has been blurred, if not erased entirely.