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Bioengineering Thesis

Bioengineering Thesis

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Published by Josh
Bioreactor design
Bioreactor design

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Published by: Josh on Jun 24, 2010
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05/03/2012

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THE PENNSYLVANIA STATE UNIVERSITYSCHREYER HONORS COLLEGEDEPARTMENT OF BIOENGINEERINGTHE NOVEL DESIGN OF A BIOREACTOR FOR IN VITRO PROLIFERATION ANDDIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLSJOSHUA D. SALVISpring 2009A thesissubmitted in partial fulfillmentof the requirementsfor a baccalaureate degreein Bioengineeringwith honors in BioengineeringReviewed and approved* by the following:Henry J. DonahueBaker Professor of Cellular and Molecular PhysiologyThesis Co-Supervisor Peter J. Butler Associate Professor of BioengineeringThesis Co-Supervisor William O. Hancock Associate Professor of BioengineeringHonors Adviser * Signatures are on file in the Schreyer Honors College.
 
 We approve the thesis of Joshua D. Salvi:Date of Signature _____________________________________ ______________ Henry J. DonahueBaker Professor of Cellular and Molecular PhysiologyThesis Co-Supervisor  _____________________________________ ______________ Peter J. Butler Associate Professor of BioengineeringThesis Co-Supervisor  _____________________________________ ______________ William O. Hancock Associate Professor of BioengineeringHonors Adviser 9-6939-2728
 
 ABSTRACT 
Continued use of autografts and allografts for bone-tissue therapy has seriousimplications, including the decreased strength of such grafts
in vivo
over time [2]. Anovel solution to this problem is the use of tissue-engineered implants from the patient’s bone marrow. Numerous techniques have already been used to build either two- or three-dimensional scaffolds. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated that oscillatingfluid flow-induced shear stresses will aid in the chemotransport among osteoblasticlineages. In an exploratory series of studies, two-dimensional nanoscale substrates have been analyzed with their flat counterparts under both static and flow conditions.Furthermore, these protocols have been simulated through finite element analysis inCOMSOL by solving for various stresses encountered by cells under oscillating fluidflow. Expanding these two-dimensional substrata to three-dimensional scaffolds, progenitor cells, including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human bonemarrow stromal cells (hBMSCs), have been proliferated while maintaining their differentiation potential into the osteoblastic lineage
in vitro.
These studies culminated inthe design of a three-dimensional bioreactor in which finite element analysis was used tooptimize the stress distribution and perfusion throughout the volume of a scaffold. The purpose of these experiments was to explore the field of tissue engineering as it applies tothe musculoskeletal sciences. This reductionist approach to tissue engineering resulted inthe proposal of a new
in silico
method and an analysis of key parameters for successful
invitro
stem cell tissue culture.

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