Continued use of autografts and allografts for bone-tissue therapy has seriousimplications, including the decreased strength of such grafts
over time . Anovel solution to this problem is the use of tissue-engineered implants from the patient’s bone marrow. Numerous techniques have already been used to build either two- or three-dimensional scaffolds. Additionally, previous studies have demonstrated that oscillatingfluid flow-induced shear stresses will aid in the chemotransport among osteoblasticlineages. In an exploratory series of studies, two-dimensional nanoscale substrates have been analyzed with their flat counterparts under both static and flow conditions.Furthermore, these protocols have been simulated through finite element analysis inCOMSOL by solving for various stresses encountered by cells under oscillating fluidflow. Expanding these two-dimensional substrata to three-dimensional scaffolds, progenitor cells, including human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and human bonemarrow stromal cells (hBMSCs), have been proliferated while maintaining their differentiation potential into the osteoblastic lineage
These studies culminated inthe design of a three-dimensional bioreactor in which finite element analysis was used tooptimize the stress distribution and perfusion throughout the volume of a scaffold. The purpose of these experiments was to explore the field of tissue engineering as it applies tothe musculoskeletal sciences. This reductionist approach to tissue engineering resulted inthe proposal of a new
method and an analysis of key parameters for successful
stem cell tissue culture.