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The Language of Anatomy

The Language of Anatomy

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Published by java_biscocho1229
anatomy and physiology: how to deal with all that medical terms in your head?
anatomy and physiology: how to deal with all that medical terms in your head?

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Published by: java_biscocho1229 on Jun 25, 2010
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05/06/2012

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THE LANGUAGE OF ANATOMY
Anatomical Position and Directional Terms 
-To accurately describe body parts and position, it is a must to have aninitial reference point and set of directional terms. To avoid confusions, it isalways assumed that the body is n a standard position called
anatomicalposition
.-The terminology that describes orientation and direction assumes that thebody is upright, with arms at the side, feet slightly apart and the palms of the hands facing forwards and thumbs point away from body 
Orientation and Directional TermsDIRECTIONAL TERMSDEFINITIONILLUSTRATION
• Superior (cranial or cephalad)upper partInferior (caudal) lower partAnterior (ventral) frontPosterior (dorsal) backMedial near midlineLateral far from midlineIntermediate between two structures
 
DIRECTIONAL TERMSDEFINITIONILLUSTRATION
• Proximalnearer attachment; close to theorigin of the body part or pointof attachment• Distalfarther attachment; farther fromthe origin of the body part or part of attachmentSuperficial on surfaceDeep away from the surfaceIpsilateral on the same sideContralateral on opposite side
Directional terms 
are used by medical personnel and anatomists to allow them to explainexactly where one body structure is in relation to another.Example:Using regular terms: The ears are located on each side of the head to the right and left of thenoseUsing anatomical terminology: The ears are lateral to the nose
Body Regional Terms
-When view externally the body is divided into regions or areas
Anterior Body Landmarks
• Abdominal-anterior body trunk• Acromial-point of shoulder • Antecubital-anterior surface of elbowAxillary-armpit• Brachial-arm• Buccal-cheek• Carpal-wrist• Cervical-neck region• Coxal-hip• Crural-leg• Digital-fingers, toes• Femoral-thigh• Fibular-side of the leg• Frontal-forehead• Inguinal-groin• Mammary-breast• Manus-hand• Memtal-chin• Nasal-nose
 
• Oral-mouth• Orbital-bony eye socket (orbit)• Palmar-palm• Patellar-anterior knee (kneecap)• Pelvic-area overlying the pelvis anteriorly• Pollex-thumb• Pubic-genital region• Sternal-breastbone• Tarsal-ankle• Thoracic-chest• Umbilical-navel
Posterior Body Landmarks
• calcaneal-heel• cephalic-head• deltoid-curve of shoulder formed by largedeltoid• dorsal-back• gluteal-buttocks• lumbar-area of back between ribs and hips;loin• occipital-posterior surface of head• olecranal-back of elbow• perineal region-region between the anus andexternal• plantar-sole• popliteal-posterior knee area• sacral-area between hips• scapular-shoulder blade region• sural-posterior surface of lower leg; calf • vertebral-area of spine
Body Planes and Sections
-When preparing to look at the internal structure of the body, it is necessary to make a section or cut. When the section is made through the body wall or through an organ, it is made along animaginary line called a plane.
Three Types of Planes or Sections
Sagittal Section
- cut made along the lengthwise, or longitudinal,plane of the body, dividing the body into left and right parts. If the cutis made down the median plane of the body, and the right and leftparts are equal in size, it is called midsagittal or median section
Frontal section
- cut made along a lengthwise plane that dividesbody into anterior and posterior part. Also called coronal section
Transverse section
- cut made along a horizontal plane, dividingthe body into superior and anterior parts. Also called cross section

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