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Published by Welvin Asid

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Published by: Welvin Asid on Jun 25, 2010
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Communication is defined as a process by which we assign and convey meaning in anattempt to create shared understanding. This process requires a vast repertoire of skillsin intrapersonal and interpersonal processing, listening, observing, speaking,questioning, analyzing, and evaluating. Use of these processes is developmental andtransfers to all areas of life: home, school, community, work, and beyond. It is throughcommunication that collaboration and cooperation occur.
Different views about communication
Communication is a process whereby information is enclosed in a package and is channeled and imparted by a sender to a receiver via some medium. The receiver then decodes the message and gives the sender afeedback. All forms of communication require a sender, a message, and an intended recipient; however the receiver need not be present or aware of the sender's intent to communicate at the time of communication in order for the act of communication to occur. Communication requires that all partieshave an area of communicative commonality.Communication involves the sharing of ideas and information. While many people think of communication primarily in oral or written form, communication is in fact so much more. A knowinglook or a gentle touch can also communicate a message loud and clear, as can a hard push or an angryslap. So, what is communication -an interaction between two people in which something is exchanged.
 Types of Communication
Communication can occur via various processes and methods and depending on the channel usedand the style of communication there can be various types of communication.
Types of Communication Based on Communication Channels
 Based on the channels used for communicating, the process of communication can be broadlyclassified as verbal communication and non-verbal communication. Verbal communicationincludes written and oral communication whereas the non-verbal communication includes bodylanguage, facial expressions and visuals diagrams or pictures used for communication.
erbal Communication
 Verbal communication is further divided into written and oral communication. The oralcommunication refers to the spoken words in the communication process. Oralcommunication can either be face-to-face communication or a conversation over the phone or on the voice chat over the Internet. Spoken conversations or dialogs areinfluenced by voice modulation, pitch, volume and even the speed and clarity of speaking. The other type of verbal communication is written communication. Writtencommunication can be either via snail mail, or email. The effectiveness of writtencommunication depends on the style of writing, vocabulary used, grammar, clarity and precision of language.
onverbal Communication
  Non-verbal communication includes the overall body language of the person who isspeaking, which will include the body posture, the hand gestures, and overall bodymovements. The facial expressions also play a major role while communication since theexpressions on a person¶s face say a lot about his/her mood. On the other hand gestureslike a handshake, a smile or a hug can independently convey emotions. Non verbalcommunication can also be in the form of pictorial representations, signboards, or even photographs, sketches and paintings.
Types of Communication Based on Style and Purpose
 Based on the style of communication, there can be two broad categories of communication,which are formal and informal communication that have their own set of characteristic features.
ormal Communication
 Formal communication includes all the instances where communication has to occur in aset formal format. Typically this can include all sorts of business communication or corporate communication. The style of communication in this form is very formal andofficial. Official conferences, meetings and written memos and corporate letters are usedfor communication. Formal communication can also occur between two strangers whenthey meet for the first time. Hence formal communication is straightforward, official andalways precise and has a stringent and rigid tone to it.
nformal Communication
 Informal communication includes instances of free unrestrained communication between people who share a casual rapport with each other. Informal communication requires two people to have a similar wavelength and hence occurs between friends and family.Informal communication does not have any rigid rules and guidelines. Informalconversations need not necessarily have boundaries of time, place or even subjects for that matter since we all know that friendly chats with our loved ones can simply go onand on.
Barriers to Effective Communication
Physical Barriers
± Following are the physical barriers:(a) The Competing Stimulus: It becomes very difficult to pass on the message orally, if another confirmation giving information simultaneously within hearing distance, sometimes-loud musicor traffic noise creates barrier in the communication process.(b) Environmental Stress: A strong light puts hindrance in case of visual communication.Because of undesired strain on the eyes of the communicatee, message is not received properly.A high temperature, humidity, bad ventilation etc. contribute in the sending and receiving of message.(c) Subjective Stress: Due to sleeplessness, ill health, consumption of drugs, mental strain etc.communicator can not interpret the message in desired manner.(d) Ignorance of Media: User should be well conversant with media that is adopted for conveying the message. The use of a media with which the receiver is not familiar would turn themedia itself into a barrier. For example, the uses of visual media like maps and charts to instructworkers, who have not been familiar with maps and charts, would switch off their attention for lack of knowledge of the media.

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