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Post Mortem of Two Charismatic Leaderss Hitler & Gandhi With the X Factor(Value & Ethics)

Post Mortem of Two Charismatic Leaderss Hitler & Gandhi With the X Factor(Value & Ethics)

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Published by viv78
This paper was done for the course Leadership and change management of executive MBA course at Kathmandu Uni school of management, Nepal. it is a comparision of the value and ehtics of gandhi n hitler
This paper was done for the course Leadership and change management of executive MBA course at Kathmandu Uni school of management, Nepal. it is a comparision of the value and ehtics of gandhi n hitler

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Published by: viv78 on Jun 25, 2010
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07/31/2011

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Abstract:
The main goal of this paper is to compare and contrast two charismatic leaders, one who is positive andthe other who had a dark charisma with the value and ethics factor and to serve as a guideline for anybudding leader. The main agents of the paper are Mahatma Gandhi and Adolf Hitler. The theme is
centered on “Do we need ethics
 
and value to be a good leader? The question it tries to raise is “DoCharismatic Leaders need to have strong value and ethical structure to do good in a larger context?”
 
Introduction to the theme:
"In
The Edge of the Sword 
de Gaulle wrote that a leader 'must be able to create a spirit of confidence inthose under him. He must be able to assert his authority.' Authority, de Gaulle argued, de rives fromprestige, and prestige 'is largely a matter of feeling, suggestion and impression, and it depends primarilyon the possession of an elementary gift, a natural attitude' ... lately gone by the fashionable termcharisma. ... To this ineffable quality, de Gaulle wrote, a leader must add three concrete ones: mystery,character, and grandeur. 'First and foremost,' he declared, 'there can be no prestige without mystery,for familiarity breeds contempt. All religions have their tabernacles, and no man is a hero to his valet.' "
Richard Nixon
The world has always been in awe of Leaders with Charisma be it Mahatma Gandhi, be it
Martin Luther King to name a few. We’ve been enthralled, fascinated with them. They’ve
mesmerized us into following them to the end of the earth and back. We look up to them as
our heroes and messiahs. “In archaic societies, the appropriate wa
y to honor progenitors,mythical or actual, is to repeat their gestures and their sacred words, In modern societies, theway to show esteem and honor is not to repeat but to build on; not ritually to invoke butproductively to extend; not just to follow bu
t to widen the path” (Wapner and other, 1983;
p11). Every Leader needs some charisma to sustain the interest of the followers, some areborn charismatic others can develop their level of charisma.The term
charisma
is
value-neutral
: it doesn't distinguish between good/moral andevil/immoral charismatic leadership. Charisma can lead to blind fanaticism in the service of megalomaniacs and dangerous values, or to heroic self-sacrifice in the service of a beneficial
 
cause. Ethical charismatic Leaders develop creative, critical thinking in their followers, providedevelopmental opportunities, welcome positive and negative feedback, recognize thecontributions of others, share information with followers, and have moral standards thatemphasize collective interests of the group, organization, or society. The following keybehaviors and moral standards further differentiate ethical from unethical charismatic leaders:
Ethical Charismatic Leader (Gandhi)
- Uses power to serve others; aligns vision with followers'needs and aspirations; considers and learns from criticism; stimulates followers to thinkindependently and to question the leader's view; uses open, two-way communication;coaches, develops, and supports followers; shares recognition with others; relies on internalmoral standards to satisfy organizational and societal interests.
Unethical Charismatic Leader (Hitler)
- Uses power only for personal gain or impact; promotesown personal vision; censures critical or opposing views; demands that own decisions beaccepted without question; one-way communication; insensitive to followers' needs; relies onconvenient external moral standards to satisfy self-interests.The double-edged sword of charismatic leadership is readily seen in the impact on followers.Ethical charismatic leaders convert followers into leaders. By expressing confidence infollowers' abilities to accomplish collective goals and encouraging them to think on their ownand question established ways of doing things, they create followers who are more capable of leading themselves. Followers feel independent, confident, powerful, and capable. Theyeventually take responsibility for their own actions; gain rewards through self-reinforcementand -- like their leader -- establish a set of internal standards to guide their actions andbehavior.Charismatic Leaders are comparable in spite of the specific character of each case, but notnecessarily in spite of the socio-economic-cultural contexts. Significant analogies can benoticed between the political roles of Mahatma Gandhi and Hitler in the following respects:the dramatic historical circumstances of their emergence as leaders; the movements that theyheaded; the symbol of hope that they became in the eyes of the people; the faith they had intheir historical mission and their determination; the outstanding political talents of these twomen; the direct contact with the people that these leaders were able to establish and thefoundation of a new political order and regime but the similarities end here. The maindifference between Gandhi and Hitler was the positive effect Gandhi bought for the wholeworld and the negative effect Hitler bought for the whole world.This analysis tries to answer a simple Question: Do Charismatic Leaders need to have strongvalue and ethical structure to do good in a larger context? This analysis in due process aims atshowing Charisma has to go hand in hand with the Transformation of self and others (followers)by imbibing values and ethics among themselves as well as their followers. This paper will show
 
how Gandhi was both a charismatic and transformational leader who had superior values andethics while Hitler was just a charismatic leader who had negative values and ethics.
Research Methodology:
Comparison of all av
ailable data, research and literature on Gandhi and Hitler’s life and
leadership style plus the relevant concepts is the main method used for this paper. It is purelyconceptual and historical with just a little hint of empirical facts.
Literature Review:
This paper is written in context of most of the prevalent Charismatic Leadership Literatureavailable and most of the theory available on Charismatic Leadership.
Charisma Exposed:
Charisma in the leadership has its roots in the writings of Max Weber (Conger & Kanungo,1994). Weber examined political leaders and believed that charisma was the result of a socialturmoil to which the charismatic leader would emerge with a new vision that would solve thecrisis (Barbuto, 1997). Thus, the followers would identify with both the leader and the vision,and they would follow with both commitment and obedience (Avolio, Waldman & Einstein,1988; House, 1977; Trice & Beyer, 1993). Weber (1947) suggested that charisma is a leadershiptrait that sets one individual apart from others. Further, a charismatic leader is endowed withsupernatural, super-human, or at least specifically exceptional powers or qualities. Others havedetermined that charisma is mainly a leader-followers phenomenon (Seltzer & Bass, 1990).Despite years of inquiry, there is no universally agreed upon definition of charisma (Avolio&Yammarino, 1990; Halpert, 1990). The word charisma is derived from the Greek word,
charismata, meaning ‘the gift of grace,’ or gifts presented by the gods (Conger, 1989;
Weber,
1947).Originally, the term was used to describe an individual’s power or attributes that could
not be described by ordinary means (Conger, 1989; Weber, 1947). Avolio and Yammarino(1990) and Conger (1989) have described charisma as being much more personal. These workshighlight that while charisma is internal to the leader, the power that the leader holds overanother is in the eye of the beholder. This amount of power or influence differs for differentpeople. To define charismatic leadership one m
ust keep in mind that “charisma” does not
describe just one personality type. Its definition must be complex enough to involve the leader,the followers and their shared environment (Conger, 1989).

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