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Black Holes "An introduction"

Black Holes "An introduction"

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Published by ARPIT GOSWAMI
provides a complete info regarding the formation, types, and detection of BLACK HOLES.
provides a complete info regarding the formation, types, and detection of BLACK HOLES.

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Published by: ARPIT GOSWAMI on Jun 26, 2010
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03/06/2011

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HOW BLACK HOLES ARE FORMED
 
Black holes and neutron stars form when stars die. While a star is burning, the heat in the star pushes outand balances the force of gravity. When the star's fuel is spent, and it stops burning, there is no heat left tocounteract the force of gravity. Whatever material is left over collapses in on itself. How much mass thestar had when it died determines what it becomes. Stars about the same size as the Sun become whitedwarfs, which glow from left over heat. Stars that have about 3 times the mass of the Sun compact intoneutron stars. And a star with mass greater than 3 times the Sun's gets crushed into a single point, which wecall a black hole.
Supernovae
A supernova explosion is usually associated with the formation of black holes and neutron stars. Tounderstand what explodes and what collapses, we need to talk about what happens during a supernovaexplosion.Young stars are hydrogen, and the nuclear reaction converts hydrogen to helium with energy left over. Theleft over energy is the star's radiation--heat and light. When most of the hydrogen has been converted tohelium, a new nuclear reaction begins that converts the helium to carbon, with the left over energy releasedas radiation. This process continues converting the carbon to oxygen to silicon to iron. Nuclear fusion stopsat iron. If you could slice a very old star in half, it may look (sort of) like this:
 
The star has layers of different elements. The outer layers of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and silicon are still burning around the iron core, building it up. Eventually, the massive iron core succumbs to gravity and itcollapses to form a neutron star. The outer layers of the star fall in and bounce off the neutron core whichcreates a shock wave that blows the outer layer outward. This is the supernova explosion.
TYPES OF BLACK HOLES
Stellar -Black holes with a mass of about 5 - 100 Suns formed at the end of very massive star'sevolutionary cycle.Mid-mass–A newly discovered type of black hole that has a mass of 500 - 1,000's of Suns.Super massive-Black holes with a mass of a million or more Suns located in the centers of galaxies.
 
STRUCTURE OF A SIMPLE BLACK HOLE
In fact, we do not really know what the inside of a black hole is like.Describing the characteristics of the structure of a black hole still remainsone of the challenges of modern relativistic astrophysics.The
Schwarzschild radius
is the radius at which theescape velocity equals the speed of light.The surface of the sphere of radius equal to theSchwarzschild radius is called the
event horizon
. We onthe outside of the black hole cannot learn anything aboutany event taking place within the event horizon, and thuswe can think of it as the "surface" of the black hole.At the center of the black hole lies a
singularity
, that is, aregion where the current laws of physics break down because the circumstances are so extreme. Note that the Schwarschild radius scales with the mass of the black hole. The Schwarzschild radius of a 1 solar mass black hole is 3 x 10
5
cm.According to Roger Penrose's
Principle of CosmicCensorship
, the fact that the laws of physics break downinside the event horizon has no impact on the physicsoutside the black hole (so we needn't worry about thefailure of our current physics too much!?).

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