Klein’s work was generally disregarded for a long period of time because new forces were beingdiscovered. This meant that the Kaluza-Klein Theory had to be amended for each of these newforces by adding another dimension. Finally, physicists have determined that eleven dimensionsare needed to incorporate all of the forces within the Kaluza-Klein Theory. Interestingly, M-theory, which is the most modern and comprehensive version of string theory, demands exactlyeleven dimensions. Although the Kaluza-Klein Theory did not prove to actually unite GeneralRelativty and electromagnetism, this theory is still applicable to today’s latest research.
String theory was introduced during the 1960s as a means of working with the strong nuclearforce and hadrons, which are particles that are affected by the strong nuclear forces such asneutrons and protons. Despite the initial excitement and work done for about five yearshereafter, the field of quantum chromodynamics appeared to deal with this situation better.Then, in 1971, string theory incorporated supersymmetry, and this merger resulted in thecreation of superstrings that can exist in ten dimensions. After that, the entire focus of stringtheory shifted when physicists moved away from the strong force and hadrons and focusedinstead on quantum gravity. At this point, the modern-day promise of string theory arosebecause string theory could now be developed to incorporate quantum mechanics and thepreviously bothersome force of gravity and the corresponding particle – the graviton.
By the end of 1985, there was not one, but rather, five separate string theories that eachinvolved ten dimensions. Interestingly, each of the five theories seemed to be accurate.The “first revolution” in string theory occurred in 1984 when the theory was proclaimed to befree from anomalies. The work of Green and Schwarz allowed for this significant declaration.However, by the end of 1985, there was not one, but rather, five separate string theories thateach involved ten dimensions. Interestingly, each of the five theories seemed to be accurate.This posed as a significant concern until 1994.