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Published by eikarain

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Published by: eikarain on Jun 26, 2010
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Calculus is a branch in mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infiniteseries. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major  branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theoremof calculus. Calculus is the study of change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shapeand algebra is the study of operations and their application to solving equations. A course incalculus is a gateway to other, more advanced courses in mathematics devoted to the study of functions and limits, broadly called mathematical analysis. Calculus has widespread applications inscience, economics, and engineering and can solve many problems for which algebra alone isinsufficient. Historically, calculus was called "the calculus of infinitesimals", or "infinitesimalcalculus". More generally, calculus may refer to any method or system of calculation guided by thesymbolic manipulation of expressions. Some examples of other well-known calculi are propositional calculus, variational calculus, lambda calculus, pi calculus, and join calculus.HistoryThe product rule and chain rule, the notion of higher derivatives, Taylor series, and analyticalfunctions were introduced by Isaac Newton in an idiosyncratic notation which he used to solve problems of mathematical physics. In his publications, Newton rephrased his ideas to suit themathematical idiom of the time, replacing calculations with infinitesimals by equivalentgeometrical arguments which were considered beyond reproach. He used the methods of calculus to solve the problem of planetary motion, the shape of the surface of a rotating fluid, theoblateness of the earth, the motion of a weight sliding on a cycloid, and many other problemsdiscussed in his Principia Mathematica. In other work, he developed series expansions for functions, including fractional and irrational powers, and it wasclear that he understood the principles of the Taylor series.
These ideas were systematized into a true calculus of infinitesimals by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz,who was originally accused of plagiarism by Newton. He is now regarded as an independentinventor of and contributor to calculus. His contribution was to provide a clear set of rules for manipulating infinitesimal quantities, allowing the computation of second and higher derivatives,and providing the product rule and chain rule, in their differential and integral forms. Unlike Newton, Leibniz paid a lot of attention to the formalism ± he often spent days determiningappropriate symbols for concepts. Leibniz and Newton are usually both credited with theinvention of calculus.Newton was the first to apply calculus to general physics and Leibnizdeveloped much of the notation used in calculus today. The basic insights that both Newton andLeibniz provided were the laws of differentiation and integration, second and higher derivatives,and the notion of an approximating polynomial series. By Newton's time, the fundamental theoremof calculus was known.AcknowledgementFirst of all, I would like to say thank you to my parents for providing everything,such as money, to buy anything that are related to this project work, their advise, which is themost needed for this project and facilities such as internet, books, computers and all that. Theyalso supported me and encouraged me to complete this task so that I will not procrastinate indoing it.Then I would like to thank to my teacher, Pn Lui for guiding me throughout this project.Even I had some difficulties in doing this task, but she taught me patiently until we knew what todo. She tried and tried to teach me until I understand what I¶m supposed to do with the projectwork.Besides that, my friends who always supporting me. Even this project is individually butwe are cooperated doing this project especially in disscussion and sharing ideas to ensure our task will finish completely.Last but not least, any party which involved either directly or indirect incompleting this project work. Thank you everyone.

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