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Family Planning

Family Planning

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Published by: boyet101 on Jun 26, 2010
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Family planning
Family planning
, also known as contraception or birth control, is a way to control unwantedpregnancies. Many methods of family planning are available, so each couple should be able to find onethat is right for them. Talk to your health-care provider to determine the best type of birth control foryou.
Type of Family PlanningNatural family planning
Natural family planning
involves no introduction of chemical of foreign material into the body orsustaining from sexual intercourse during fertile period.
Calendar Method.
The calendar method requires a couple to abstain from coitus(sexual relations) on the days of a menstrual cycle when the woman is most likelyto conceive (3 or 4 days before until 3 or 4 days after ovulation). To plan for this,the woman keeps a diary of six menstrual shortest cycles. To calculate safedays, she subtracts 18 from the shortest cycle documented. This numberrepresents her first fertile day. She subtracts 11 from her longest cycle. Thisrepresents her last fertile day. If she had six menstrual cycles raging from 25 to29 days, her fertile period would be from the 7
th
day (25 minus 18) to the 18
th
day (29 minus 11). Toavoid pregnancy, she would avoid coitus during those days.
Abstinence.
Is the act of avoiding sex, whether sexual contact altogether or just intercourse. Thismethod of family planning is the only one that is 100 percent effective in preventing pregnancy andprotecting against sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Abstinence can be difficult to maintain andallows for little spontaneity.
Coitus Interruptus.
Is the oldest known methods of contraception. The couple proceeds with coitus untilthe moment of ejaculation. Then the man withdraws and spermatozoa. Unfortunately, ejaculation mayoccur before withdrawal is complete and, despite the care used, some spermatozoa may be deposited inthe vagina.
Lactation Amenorrhea Method.
As long as a woman is breastfeeding an infant there is some naturalsuppression of ovulation. Because women may ovulate, however, but not menstruate, a woman maystill be fertile even she has not had a period since childbirth. If the infant is receiving a supplementalfeeding or not sucking well, the use of lactation as an effective birth control method is questionable. Asa rule, after 3 months of breastfeeding, the woman should be advised to choose another method of contraception.
Effect on Sexual Enjoyment
Once a couple is certain of a womans nonfertile days using one of the natural planning methods thatinvolve sexual relations is possible with the methods that involve vaginal insertion products. On theother hand, the required days of abstinence may make a natural planning method unsatisfactory and
 
unenjoyable for couple. Coitus interruptus may be unenjoyable because of the need to withdraw beforeejaculation.
B
arrier methods
B
arrier methods
 
are forms of birth control that work by the placement of a chemical or other barrierbetween the cervix and advancing sperm so that sperm cannot enter the uterus or fallopian tubes andfertilize the ovum. A major advantage of barrier methods is that they lack the hormonal side effectsassociation with COCs. However, compared with COCs, their failure rates are higher and sexualenjoyment may be lessened.
D
iaphragm.
Is a circular rubber disk that is placed over the cervix beforeintercourse. A diaphragm is prescribed and fitted initially by a physician, nursepractitioner, or nurse-midwife to ensure a correct fit. A diaphragm is insertedinto the vagina, after first coating the rim and center portion with spermicidalgel, by sliding it along the posterior wall and pressing it up against the cervix sohat it is held in place by the vaginal fornices. A woman should check herdiaphragm with her finger after insertion to be certain that is fitted well up overthe cervix; she can palpate the cervical or through the diaphragm.A diaphragm should remain in place for at least 6 hours after coitus, because spermatozoaremain viable in the vagina for that length of time. It may be left in place for as long as 24 hours. If it isleft in the vagina longer than this, the stasis of fluid may cause cervical inflammation(erosion) orurethral irritation.Diaphragm is removed by inserting a finger into the vagina and loosening the diaphragm bypressing against the anterior rim and then withdrawing it vaginally.
Cervical cap.
Is made soft rubber, shaped like a thimble with a thin rim, and fit snugly over the uterinecervix. The advantage of cervical cap is it can remain in place longer than diaphragms, because they donot put pressure o the vaginal walls or urethra; however, this time period should not exceed 48 hours,to prevent cervical irritation.
The female condom.
Is a soft, loose-fitting thin plastic pouch that goes inside awoman's vagina.You plan ahead and put it in before sex and use a new condom each time youhave sex.Female condoms are plastic so people who are allergic to latex can use them.You can get them at drug stores and most health clinics.
The male condom.
Is a late rubber or synthetic sheath that is placed over the erect penis before coitusto trap sperm. A major advantage of condoms is that they are one of the few male responsibility birthcontrol measures available, and no healthcare visit or prescription is needed. Latex condoms protect youfrom STDs, including HIV.
 
Hormonal Methods
 Hormonal contraceptives are, as the name implies, hormones that cause such fluctuations in a normalmenstrual cycle that ovulation does not occur. Hormonal contraceptives may be administered orally,transdermally, vaginally, by implantation, or through injection.
V
aginal Ring
 This small, soft plastic ring has hormones to prevent pregnancy. You place a newring in your vagina every month. The ring is easy to use and is almost 100percent effective.
Injectable progesterone (
D
epo Provera)
You get a birth control shot once every 3 months from a doctor or nurse.The shot is an easy method and almost 100 percent effective if you get your shotON TIME.
Intradermal Implant
The Intradermal implant is a thin, 2-inch plastic rod that uses hormones toprevent pregnancy for 3 years.A clinic doctor or nurse inserts it under the skin on the inside of your arm.The implant is VERY effective.
IU
D
 
These small devices are inserted into your uterus.They work for 5-10 years.They are VERY effective.
Combination oral contraceptives (COCs)
 Also called pills. You take one pill at the same time every day. Missing a pillincreases your chance of pregnancy.Pills are easy to take and are effective birth control that doesn't interrupt sex.

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